Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC


Havana, FIEL Network, in Spanish to Cuba, Sept. 29, 1960, 0212 GMT--E

(Editorial Report)  The network at 0142 GMT from the presidential palace
first broadcast a 20-minute speech by Cuban President Csvaldo Dorticos
before he introduced Premier Fidel Castro to an assemblage gathered to
welcome the premier on his return from the United Nations General Assembly
in New York.  Dorticos said the revolutionary government had to present the
special situation of Cuba before the world tribute and that one conclusion
was inevitable--that Cuba's voice could not be better heard than from the
premier himself.  We knew, Dorticos said, he would speak not only in the
name of our people but in the name of all the peoples of Latin America and
all the underdeveloped countries of the world.  he undertook the sacrifice
and the effort was not in vain.  Just as our people expected, the voice of
Cuba resounded as never before with truths that will not be forgotten.
Castro then spoke.  A summary of his speech follows.

Cubans:  We were not much in agreement with the idea of mobilizing the
people for our return.  We are worried by the fact that we constantly have
to be going out--the president or I for the foreign minister or somebody
else--to attend events of this nature; it is not logical that every time we
go somewhere and come back, merely doing our work, the people should have
to give us a reception.  In any case, we must take advantage of the
opportunity to say a few short words of truth.  To give you some
impressions--(Editor's Note:  There appears to be trouble with the
microphones).  I cannot understand why people cannot hear anything
today--well, now maybe we can get down to brass tacks, what with all the
technical difficulties here.

We are bringing a profound impression and some experiences from this trip.
It is really quite a pity that every Cuban was not able to spend 10 days as
we did.  We would go a bit further and say that it would have been
worthwhile for those unfortunate persons who went into exile to have spent
their first 10 days in New York and lived as we did.  It is difficult to
give an idea of it.

We feel the same thing for the revolution as you do--the same hopes, the
same joys, the same experiences.  Here, amid the whirlwind of events,
neither you nor we are able really to be aware of the true meaning--not
internationally speaking; I am not referring to that--but to what this new
country which we are building represents for each of us.  (Big Applause)  I
will not try to explain it because I know that it is impossible, but at
least, expressing the feelings of all of us who have spent 10 days inside
the empire, we confess that we have really gained a clear and complete idea
of the meaning of having a country (Applause) particularly now that we are
not longer a colony, now that we are a nation, truly sovereign and free.

We bring with us an impression and memory which we shall never be able to
forget:  The impression and memory of the Cubans who live in New York.
Actually, we have perhaps not thought sufficiently about the situation of
that part of our people who had to leave the country, because here in this
former colony of Yankee imperialism we did not have means for earning a
living.  It is always sad to emigrate, to go to a cold, hostile country
to make one's living, and how sad that part of our people were to tear
themselves from the country, but particularly how sad it was that that part
of our people had to live abroad.  What a difficult fate it was for those
Cubans and what a great merit it was for those Cubans, the heroes of the
revolution--that true heroes of the revolution are at this moment those
Cubans in the brutal north, as Marti would say--those Cubans who remain
loyal to their country, those Cubans who remain firm (Applause).  It is
sorrowful for us to think of their lives, for today they are living in New
York as we lived until Jan. 1, 1959.

Dozens of Cubans, men and women, were brutally beaten by henchmen in New
York during the days we spent there.  It is sufficient to say that the
stick, the night stick as they call what the police use there and which was
abolished in our country a long time ago, is an institution of terror in
that superfree country, this superdemocratic, superhumanitarian and
supercivilized country.  Police searches, persecution, and provocations are
the methods used by them against our compatriots.  Even murderers of
hundreds of peasants are unmolested.  They belong to the great family of
the free world.

However, if it is a matter of honest Cubans, Cubans who are loyal to their
country, Cubans who feel for their country, the worst persecutions await
them.  And it is very sad to think that there are Cubans forced by the
poverty and the unemployment in our country to go to another country and
live as pagans in ancient Rome.

Despite all this, the enthusiasm of those Cubans was tremendous.  Their
love for their country is second to none.  What love for their country!
What a desire to return some day!  One must see those scenes to know what
we mean, in order to understand what is lost when a country is lost.  It is
as through the dream of returning to live in their country one day has
never left them, the desire of again feeling the warmth of their land, and
we took something like an oath that some day those Cubans must return.
Some day they must return to work here in their own country, to live here
in their country.  That is why we must make efforts, we must struggle for
this.  It is worthwhile for us to do everything necessary for this.  It is
worthwhile because those compatriots of ours deserve it.  And we must
establish something like a new neighborhood where the Cubans who return
from abroad can live.  In that way we can compensate them for the heroism,
the firmness, they are showing there, where all is hostility, all is
persecution, and all is falseness, where there are anti-Cuban campaigns,
lies, and yet they, like the Negroes of Harlem (Applause and Chanting)
remain firm.

Systematic anti-Cuban Campaign

We must make an effort to even imagine the campaign that is being waged
systematically against Cubans in all the magazines, newspapers, radio and
television stations.  And yet the Cubans, the Dominicans, the Puerto
Ricans, the Negroes of Harlem, and the Latin Americans in general, remain
firm.  They are the groups most exploited and oppressed by imperialism in
its own territory.  And it is very moving.  one must see how, from the time
our delegation began traveling through Harlem, from the instant a Negro saw
us, he began to wave to us in greeting.

In the very heart of the empire there are 20 million Negroes, oppressed and
exploited. Their aspirations cannot be satisfies with a fistful of dollars.
It is a very much more difficult problem because their aspirations can only
be satisfied by justice. And we, reciprocating for the hospitality we
received, have invited 300 representatives of the U.S. Negroes to visit our
country so that they can learn at firsthand a country where there is

But there are also many thinking people in the United States--particularly
writers--honest people, who have had the courage to express publicly right
their their sympathy for the Cuban revolution, through a "Fair-Play For
Cuba Committee" they have formed.  It includes some of the most intelligent
and influential people in the United States.

There are also others in the United States who are oppressed. There are
many farmers who are defrauded by the great monopolies of the United
States. One must have lived 10 days in the bowels of the imperialist
monsters to know that monopoly and publicity there are one and the same
thing. And since we have been enemies of the monopolies, since we have
fought against the most powerful of the monopolies of the empire, the
organs of publicity fought us. But they did not fight with reason, for they
really lack this. They combat us with lies, with all types of falsehoods,
inventions that remind us of our ingenuous days when we thought the stories
sent us by the news agencies of the monopolies were true. (Chanting,
Applause) In our ingenuousness we were made to believe that theft was
noble, that exploitation was just, that lies were truth, and that the truth
was a lie.

All that false propaganda is the propaganda which constantly falls on the
people of the United States, as it did on us before.  They try to fool the
people of the United States constantly.  Independent papers, papers that
tell the truth, cannot exist there.  Papers that tell truth are left
without advertisements; advertising agencies are absolutely controlled by
monopolies.  There never is healthy criticism there; everything is
motivated by gain, by material interest, by money, by what will be paid for
propaganda.  All this explains the results; one result is the hysteria
which has been created among a part of the people.  One cannot understand
how it is possible to live amid the frothing range in some people there.

How different the result when people are well oriented, hen they know the
truth, when they fight for something, won the life of a nation has a
meaning, an ideal, an objective to fight for.

Despite all the insults we suffered, despite all the aggressions our
country has sustained, we have the utmost confidence that if the U.N.
headquarters were established here, no Cuban would insult a single visitor,
that there would be no act of hostility against any delegation, for the
Cubans would know the opportunity had come to show we are a thousand times
more decent than the imperialists (Applause),  that we are a thousand times
more gentlemanly than the imperialists (Applause), that we are a thousand
times more hospitable than the imperialists, and that we are a million
times more honorable than the imperialists (Applause)  When one is
honorable, he displays honor, when one is decent, he shows decency.  But
when one is only shamelessness, that is what is shown.

Small Bomb Explodes

We observed honor and hospitality and generous conduct and decency among
the humble Negroes of Harlem.  (Applause, and Chanting and Singing)

(At this point a small explosive went off in the crowd--Ed.)

Castro:  That little bomb; everybody knows who paid for it; it is one of
imperialism's.  Tomorrow you will read--note this well--that the bomb went
off just as they were talking about imperialism.  (Crowd noise again for
several minutes.  Music played to quiet the crowd--Ed.)

Castro: How naive they (apparently counter revolutionaries--Ed.) are. When
they fired 500 to 1000-pound bombs marked made in USA they couldn't do a
thing; not even when they fired napalm bombs, and their planes couldn't do
anything. They had to surrender. They couldn't take the Sierra Maestra. how
are they going to advance now behind the little explosives. (Crowd calls
out "Paredon, Paredon, Paredon,--to the wall--Ed.)

How are they going to impress the people with little bombs, if the people
here are preparing to resist not just little bombs.  The people are
prepared to resist anything that falls, even atomic bombs.

For every little bomb of the imperialists, we build 500 houses.  For every
little bomb they make in a year, we construct three cooperative houses.
For every little bomb, we nationalize a Yankee estate.  For every little
bomb of the imperialists, we refine hundreds of thousands of barrels of
oil.  For every little bomb we will build a plant to give employment in our
country.  For every little bomb the imperialists pay for we convert a
garrison into a school.  For every little bomb the imperialists pay for, we
arm at least 1,000 militiamen.  (Applause) Comrade (Pani?) had a good idea;
he says we should dedicate a new labor circle, a regiment to this little
bomb.  (Chanting)

Block 'Spies' to be Established

We are going to establish a system of collective vigilance and we shall see
how the lackeys of imperialism are going to get around this.  We shall see
if there is a single district not well represented here.  We shall set up a
collective revolutionary vigilance system and everyone on the block will be
known, what his activities are.  If they think they are going to have to
deal with the people they will get a tremendous scare.  We are going to set
up a revolutionary vigilance committee on every block so that the people
can see what is going on.

The imperialists and their lackeys will not be able to make a move.  They
are dealing with the people, and they do not know yet the tremendous
revolutionary power of the people.  Therefore, new steps must be taken in
the organization of the militia.  Malitia battalions will be created
throughout Cuba.  Each man for each weapon will be selected.  A structure
will be given to the entire mass of militiamen so that as soon as possible
our combat units will be perfectly formed and trained.  One thing is clear:
We do not have to tighten up before the time comes.  There is nothing to
worry about.  One must not worry.  Let them do the worrying.  We will
conserve our serenity and our march; it is a firm but sure march.

One of our impressions on this trip, this important trip, is the amount of
hatred felt toward our revolutionary people by imperialism, the degree of
hysteria which imperialism has reached, the degree of demoralization that
imperialism has reached.  And you have seen it.  They are still thinking
about the Cuban charges because they really do not have anything with which
to reply.

It is, however, important that all of us be very conscious of the struggle
undertaken by revolution.  It is necessary for all of us to know perfectly
well that it will be a long, long and hard struggle.  (Applause)  It is
important for us to realize that our revolution has faced up to the most
powerful empire in he world.  Of all the colonialist and imperialists
countries, Yankee imperialism is the most powerful in diplomatic influence
and military resources.  It is also an imperialism that is not like the
English, which is more mature, more experienced, it is proud imperialism,
barbarous,and many of its leaders are barbarous men who have nothing to
envy of the first cavemen.  Many of their leaders are men with fangs.  It
is the most aggressive, most warlike, and most stupid imperialism.

We are on the frontline, a small country with few economic resources giving
battle on the frontline for our sovereignty, destiny, and right.  It is
necessary to be very conscious that our country is facing the most fierce
empire of the contemporary times.  It must also be realized that
imperialism will not stop trying to destroy the revolution, hinder the
revolution.  It must always be borne in mind that imperialism hates us with
the hatred of the masters for the rebellious slaves.  And we will defend
ourselves with the fierceness of slaves who have rebelled.

Spoke for All Underdeveloped

There is nothing more fierce than the hatred of the master for the
rebellious slave. And to that must be added the fact that they see their
interests endangered--not only here but throughout the world. We brought
our case to the United Nations, but our case was the case of all
underdeveloped countries--the case of Latin America, Africa, the Middle
East, the case of the Asian countries. Our case was one that could be
applied to the rest of the world. The rest of the underdeveloped world is
also being exploited by the monopolies. We told them that the property of
the monopolies must be nationalized without any indemnification. We told
the other countries: Do what we have done; do not continue to be victims of

Therefore, there is a universal interest in our struggle. A battle is
taking lace for the liberation of Cuba and all the other exploited nations
of the world. It is necessary for us to know what we are doing, the
interests we are affecting. Those interests will not raise the white flag
easily. It will be a long fight. Not only do we have to defend ourselves
from aggression, but we must also advance, we must progress on all fronts.
The clearest impression we brought back is that we must redouble our
efforts (Applause), that we must be aware of the great role we are playing
in the world. Actions are worth more than words. We have spoken of some of
the things we have done. The important thing is action, deeds. We must make
our country advance. To do this we must devote ourselves to our task. We
all have a task.

We went there to speak on behalf of all of you. We went because we have the
supporf of all of you. We could do this because we took with us the moral
support of all the men and women of our country. We took with us the moral
strength of a people. That is why we could go there to denounce
imperialism, and that is why our country is admired--not for the words, but
for the deeds; not for what a Cuban may say there, but for what all the
Cuban may do and can do.

The world is forming an idea of us, a better idea than it ever had--if the
world ever had an idea of our existence.  And what is behind that opinion
is a people, what makes that opinion is the efforts of a people.  We urge
each and every one of you to form an image of the great responsibility each
of us has.  We are not individuals, we are part of a people, we are part of
humanity, at a decisive hour for the human race.  We are an idea, we are a
hope, we are an example, and when the premier of the revolutionary
government appeared at the United Nations (Applause) it was not a man
appearing, it was a nation.  (Applause)

Every one of you appeared there; every one of you was there. We went there
with the force we receive from being able to count on the support and
effort of every one of you. We felt very obligated to the people; we feel
we have a great responsibility to the people. And so, every one of you must
feel--and keep this in mind--the work we are doing, we are all doing it

(Editor's Note:  Another small explosive goes off.  There are shouts
from the crowd.  The national anthem is played and sung)

Let them explode; that way they are training the people to become
accustomed to all kinds of noise. (Chants of "unity" heard) (Crowd noise is
heard again) these things just confirm what we have been saying: The
revolution has a long battle ahead, a hard battle. Therefore, we reiterate
that every one of us should taken to heart his role and his responsibility.
Easy things are not those that give the best fruits in the long run. The
worthwhile things in the life of nations and people are the difficult
things, for these are the ones worth doing. (Applause)

Knowing the might of the empire we face does not discourage us.  On the
contrary, it encourages us.  The one that should be demoralized is the
empire, because of the battle being waged against it by a small nation.
Let nobody think that the years ahead will be years of tranquility and
east.  The greatest interest in the years ahead is the work and the battle
we have ahead of us.  That is the extraordinary interest which the future
holds for us.  That is what liberates us from the sorrows and shame of the
past.  That is what makes our people happy, above all, knowing that on Jan.
1 the revolution did not end, but was just beginning.  That is what makes
our people happy, thinking that if the first stage was the fruit of effort
by part of the nation, the future, tomorrow's victory, will be the fruit of
the effort of the entire nation.

And tomorrow no one need feel shame, because the future is full of riches,
there is a place for each of us.  In the future there is a place for every
one of us, and we ourselves feel that we are beginning, that we have
barely begun, that we are on the first pages of the great book of the
history which the Cuban people are wiring.  (Applause)  And this victory we
will win with two things:  Intelligence and courage.  (Applause)  Neither
intelligence nor courage must get ahead; both must march together on the
road to victory.  (Applause) Up to today, those have been the main
essentials of the successes we have achieved.

It would be a mistake to underestimate the imperialistic enemy.  He made
the mistake of underestimating us. (Applause)  In our people there has been
a greater revolutionary force than they ever imagined.  In our people there
has been a greater moral force than they ever imagined.

U.S. Pretext for Aggression

We must not commit the mistake of underestimating the imperialist enemy.
We will correctly estimate his power and do what is necessary to be
victories in this battle for the liberation of our country.  We want to
know every moment what they are planning, what they are doing and how to
combat it, as we are doing right now in denouncing their hysteria and how
to combat it, as we are doing right now in denouncing the hysteria they are
creating about the base, and the reports about our attacking the base.  We
asked the president of the assembly to take note of our concern over the
campaigns they have been undertaking in order to create a pretext for
aggression against our country.

We don't want them to invade our country.  We don't want to give them a
pretext for invading it.  What they would like is that we allow ourselves
to do as they wish.  We should do what we want to do and what is beneficial
for us, not them.  Marti said:  Never do what the enemy wants you to do.
That is why we have always explained, as we did at the United Nations, that
we would demand our sovereignty by legal means, through international law,
not through international law, not through arms.  Our arms are not to serve
the enemy but to combat it.  Our weapons should always be ready for what
the enemy does not want--for our defense, for resistance.

"It is necessary that the people who have listened to our words in the
United Nations know that one of the most delicate problems, one in which we
must act with the most intelligence, one in which we must overcome the
imperialist enemy, is that of the Caimanera Base because that base is the
one they will try to use as a pretext.  Our position must be clear to the
people and to the entire world:  That when we go to reclaim it we will
reclaim it in accordance with international law as one of our deniable
rights which they will have to acknowledge."

Against the imperialist enemy the best thing to do is to bar its path when
it seeks a pretext and tell it:  Seek another way, for that one will not be
open to you.

The imperialist enemy is capable of the unimaginable. The enemy uses any
weapons--from the murder of leaders to military invasions, always seeking
the murdering hand, the gangster, the pretext. And we should not only be
valiant but also intelligent. We must win the battle, we must be victorious
against the imperialist enemy. We must win all battles, as we have won in
the United Nations.

The imperialist enemy is being defeated at the United Nations.  The
supporters of armaments, the enemies of peace, the militarists are
receiving rough blows at the United Nations.  The imperialist enemy must be
demoralized before a war.  The enemies of peace, those who play with the
fate of all humanity, must be defeated on all fronts.

Intensive Revolutionary Education

We must go on orienting ourselves, preparing ourselves mentally, and
educating ourselves on these questions.  Our interest in international
problems must not flag.  Previously we did not care about international
problems because we were only interested in what the Yankee delegate used
to say.  We were always silent and obedient.  That is why no one worried.
They would say:  This is a Yankee problem, let the Americans worry about
it.  What were we?  That is why no one worried.  But now that we also have
opinions in the world, now that we are also in the world, it is good for us
to know what is happening in Latin America, Asia, Africa; what peoples live
there, what are their problems, what are the positions of their

That is why it is good for many books to be published and for us to
continue to study.  All of us have the duty to learn, to know, and to
teach.  The opportunity must be taken to learn of the problems, to know of
the economic and social problems of Cuba and outside of Cuba.  Otherwise we
will never be more than bachelors of revolution; we will never become
doctors of revolution.  Books should be read at social circles, in military
camps, in unions--everywhere.  We must learn what we must know.  All can be
sure that what the Cuban cannot learn cannot be learned by anyone.

We consider that form our impressions on our trip,these are the most
important conclusions:  The role of Cuba, the idea of the struggle ahead,
the need for intelligence and valor, the need to work harder.  We must be
able to tell what we have done.  We are building a great land and we are
proud of it.  We alone are responsible for what we have done and what we
are doing.  We will not do it for the sake of vanity.  We will do it
because it is good for our people.  We will try to do the most perfect work
possible, so that it will be our best defense, so that we can say:  Come to
see our cooperatives, houses, schools, and universities.  (Applause)

Let them come.  We will always have something to show.  We will show the
militia, the youth brigades, the great reforestation projects, the school
cities we are building, we will show what our country is.  Those who have
come to see what we are doing are astonished that a small nation, facing so
many obstacles, can do so much.  And this will always be a reason of pride
for us.  It is what sustains the spirits of our copatriots in New York.  It
is the pride that sustains our delegates anywhere in the world.  It is the
basic idea we wanted to expose here tonight.

And thanks for the two little bombs, for they have been valuable in regard
to what we have been explaining.  They demonstrated the mettle of our
people, the courage of our people (Applause) for not a single woman budged
from her place (Applause) not a single man budged (Applause) nor will
anyone budge from his post in face of any danger, any attack.  We are
soldiers of the country.  We do not belong to ourselves:  We belong to our
country.  (Applause)  It does not matter if any one of us falls; what
matters is that this flag shall remain high, the idea shall go forward, our
country shall live.  (Applause)