Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC



Source:  Revolucion (Revolution), Havana, 17 December 1960

Militia for Frontal War and People for Underground Struggle Against Yankee
Imperialism -- US:  the Worst Ally -- Empire Lives Under Fascist-Style
Hysteria -- Khrushchev is a Genial and Very Sympathetic Type -- Will
Return to UN

A program, intended to offer a compendium of opinion on Dr. Fidel
Castro's recent appearance before the General Assembly of the United
Nations -- opinions which were to be expressed by newspapermen who were
part of the Cuban delegation -- at one o'clock in the morning was turned
into a most interesting report by the Prime Minister of the Revolutionary
Government himself, in a dialogue with the comrades who made up the "round
table" into which the "Meet the Press" program had actually been turned. In
his conversation with the newsmen, the maximum leader of the revolution
ratified and spelled out the concepts on the position of Cuba with respect
to international issues and, above all, with respect to the continuous
threat to Cuban sovereignty which comes from imperialism. We very calmly
pointed out that the instruments of the imperialists would inevitably be
thrown into this fight, even though they know what end awaits them. But if
any Yankee puppet government declares war on us, we will blast right back.
He said that the Prime Minister of the USSR is a genial person, a
magnificent and capable individual and, that he could learn more than Nixon
and Kennedy -- whom he called ignorant -- if he were to spend 6 months in
the United States. He referred to the need for expanding the education of
the Cuban people and he discussed the plans which are ready for this
purpose. He once again urged the people to be vigilant in response to the
counterrevolutionary maneuvers and the maneuvers of imperialism.

The Round Table

Newspapermen Luis O. Wanguemert, Jose Pardo Llada, Honorio Munoz, and
our editor in chief, Carlos Franque, had gathered for the "Meet the Press"
program, which is broadcast over CMZ-TV, in order to offer their
impressions on the trip of Dr. Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of the
Revolutionary Government, to the United Nations.

The first to speak was Pardo Llada who said that, after Fidel's speech,
even the dailies that are enemies of the Cuban Revolution admitted that
Cuba had acquired tremendous international prestige and pointed out that
the speech was followed very attentively not only by the delegates but also
by the people at large.  He told how one delegate had exclaimed that
the United Nations had never before heard so valiant a denunciation of
Yankee imperialism.

Honorio Munoz declared that the [illegible number in photostat]
assembly of the United Nations was the most difficult of all of the ones
that have confronted imperialism over the years.  He pointed out that the
United States at first had an automatic majority but that the many neutral
countries, which are entering the United Nations, have reduced this
proportion.  This means that imperialism must pursue a complete new policy
because these countries vote for the termination of the colonies, for
disarmament, and for peace.  It is no longer easy for imperialism to impose
its will without debates.  In 1961, its position will be much weaker.

Honorio Munoz also pointed out that the Cuban proposals were received
with great applause by the delegations from Honduras, El Salvador, and
Mexico. He recommended that we should not engage in any great illusions
mover these gestures but he agreed that they do at any rate reveal that
there are contradictions in the enemy camp. He pointed out that the
position of the Argentine delegation was extraordinarily servile. Our
director, Carlos Franqui, recalled that Yankee imperialism did everything
possible to prevent world leaders from attending the 15th Assembly of the
UN. They did not want that assembly to assume world-wide significance. In
particular, they did not want Khrushchev or Fidel to attend. When
Khsrushchev arrived, they assigned the "Baltika" the worst pier to tie up
at and they even allowed a motorboat with 3 or 4 anti-Soviets to approach
the ship and shout slogans against Khsrushchev. He reported that the
pickets always look alike because they are professional pickets, who are
even reported as such in the newspapers.

After pointing out that this assembly was the most difficult for Yankee
imperialism, since it was demonstrated that imperialism does not have
reason behind it, but only force, he praised the speech by Kwame Nkrumah,
the leader of Ghana, who advocated one great African nation for the
Africans.  Going on to Latin America, he indicated that all of the
governments have sold out to Yankee imperialism and that this became
quite clear in the United Nations during the various speeches.  One of the
most lackey-like attitudes was the attitude of the Foreign Minister of
Brazil, Horacio Lafer, who merely repeated the arguments of the United
States and went so far as to condemn "ideological aggressions."

Honorio Munoz also pointed out that British imperialism has created a
pocket republic called "Upper Volta," as a buffer between Guinea and Ghana,
for the purpose of controlling the sources of the Volta River and
preventing Ghana from building a dam which would provide electric power for
the operation of its big mineral reserves.  He also pointed out that Fidel
supported the leader of the Congolese people, Lumumba, and indicated the
danger of the "Batista of the Congo," the traitor Mobutu.

Black Rebellion in the United States

Then Franqui analyzed the situation of Africa in general and of the
Congo in particular; he pointed out that more than 200 million Africans,
who had been oppressed and mistreated, had rebelled against imperialism and
that, in spite of all of the maneuvers of the colonial nations, "the battle
of the Congo has not yet been lost."  He also assigned great importance to
the statement of Fidel Castro in the United Nations, to the effect that
Lumumba is the principal leader of the Congo who has majority support among
his people.

The managing editor of Revolucion next took up the outrageous
committed by the United States authorities and reported that several Cubans
were savagely beaten in a police station simply because they sympathized
with the revolution.  "The American police is brutal and fascist," he

He talked about the harmful influence exerted by a press that is
controlled by the monopolies, a press that influences a great portion of
the American people; he recalled that Eisenhower, in his United Nations
speech, had rejected disarmament, that he had openly defended colonialism,
and that he denied the right of the peoples of the world to liberate
themselves through revolutions.  Changing the subject, he said that there
was "a possibility of rebellion, in the future, not only in Harlem but in
all of the Negro minorities of the United States."

In another one of his comments, Munoz mentioned the critical situation
in the Congo, where "there is practically no government at all" and where
"the Belgians have removed everything, down to the very last penny."  In
his opinion, Lumumba made two basic tactical errors:  first of all, he went
abroad and, then, he had almost no army at all when he invaded the region
of Katanga.

Harlem Supports Fidel

Later on, Eddy Martin talked about the extraordinary demonstrations of
solidarity displayed by the Negro and Latin population of New York with
respect to Fidel Castro; he told how thousands of people were awaiting the
arrival of the Cuban delegation at the air port, in spite of the rain; he
told how many residents of Harlem crowded around the Hotel Theresa, even
late at night, and he reported about the "religious meetings" which they
held every night in front of the hotel.

He also talked about a walk with Major Juan Almeida and Captain Nunez
Jimenez took through Harlem, followed by an impressive crowd several blocks
long; he told about the abuses of the New York police against the
sympathizers of the Cuban Revolution; the police there even went so far as
to "club a girl on the head."

Pardo Llada explained that the "counterrevolutionaries do not dare go
into Harlem alone" and that the band of counterrevolutionaries, which did
not exceed 35 individuals, was protected by more than 300 police, while
they shouted obscenities against the revolutionary leaders.  In the group
he saw Luis Conto Aguero, Aloma Kessel, Diaz Lanz, and others.  "They made
the ridiculous look shameful," he added.

Alms and Disarmament

Our editor, Carlos Franqui, then stated that Eisenhower's criterion is
that United States aid must be given in the form of a gift or alms, using
the surpluses from America's capitalist production.  This kind of aid does
not resolve the problems of Latin America.  The Americans do not talk about
industrialization, nor about agrarian reform, and they only make false and
hypocritical statements.

Honorio Munoz declared that Khsrushchev's speech described the
situation in precise terms; it pointed out the crisis of imperialism and
the need for liberating the colonial world; it provided that imperialism is
a factor of permanent war if it continues to hold on to its power
positions. Khsrushchev advocated coexistence and peaceful competition.

Luis G. Manguemert then stated that the Soviet plant called for general
and complete disarmament in 4 years and the creation of an international
force intended to maintain world peace.  Carlos Franquie pointed out that
the United States did not accept the Khsrushchev disarmament plan because
the United States knows that it is in the wrong; the United States does not
discuss anything because it has no ideals, it is against the existence of
the peoples and it only has force to back it up.  He continued, saying that
Khsrushchev made many gestures in support of the Cuban Revolution including
the fact that he reasserted USSR support for Cuba in case of aggression.
When Fidel brought up a statement by Admiral Burke, saying that the USSR
would not help Cuba, Khsrushchev rose and said:  "He is wrong."  Then he
revealed that a South American delegate had told Fidel:  "I think he is the
best advocate for a great cause.  I have never seen anybody with such
fantastic reasoning powers."

Fidel's Surprise Visit

Dr. Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of the Revolutionary Government,
appeared in the studios of CMQ-TV, where the "Meet the Press" program was
on in the evening, and he made reference to a news item published in the
afternoon dailies, to the effect that the American State Department had
advised American citizens to leave Cuba.

"If this is not an order issued by the State Department," he said,
"then many will not leave because they are simply enchanted with the
hospitality they have found here.  They could not possibly have any
complaints because our people treat them with respect.  But there is one
thing that is obvious now:  if one of them comes in as a spy and if he
starts putting in microphones, acting quite openly as a spy, well, then,
that gentleman will have to be put under arrest.

"We will treat all American citizens with respect and we can guarantee
them security. Sometime ago we explained that the nationalization law will
never threaten the families who have their homes here because they like
this country; we pointed out that the law is not against them but only
against the monopolies. We made this declaration some time ago out of
humane considerations. We believe that we must be gentlemen toward all
those who reside here. This is why we condemn those who beat up our
compatriots over there, in the streets and in the police stations."

We Will Shoot the Spies

"Of course, if somebody comes here as a spy, he will have to be
arrested and he might even have to be put before a firing squad, if it is
necessary to execute him. We cannot permit acts of espionage of
counterrevolution. Some of these people did well in leaving. We had some
types here, who are better off back home, like the American who joined the
insurgents; those are the kind of people whom we can shoot. There have been
many cases of espionage. Of course, they would like us to let the spies run
around freely here and promote terrorist campaigns and plant bombs. We
caught embassy officials here in the act of conspiring and we have the
necessary evidence; this is something that everybody knows. Let them not
pretend that we ought to tolerate their open conspiratorial activities. On
the other hand, we have people like Hemingway here and many others who
never had any problems with us. All of them will be well treated in their
hotels because we Cubans are hospitable by nature.

"This is an insidious campaign that in the end will accomplish the
purpose of imperialism in aggravating relations; this causes trouble for
thousands of citizens who are in no way responsible for the barbarous
actions of the government, who like this country, because this country
likes anybody who loves peace.  These measures can only molest families who
are here voluntarily.  Many of them live here because they like it; but
the Cubans live here out of necessity, because they have no place else to
go.  This hysteria is created by them; it is like an epidemic; nobody here
is responsible for this.  Who could convince the owners of newspapers and
news agencies that they must resign themselves to the reality of the world?
They are the victims of their own hysteria which they are creating here."

The Empire Caught Up in Hysteria

"In confining us to Manhattan, they made a very big mistake with us,
one mistake after the other.  The empire is caught up in a wave of
hysteria.  It is a fascist type hysteria.  The kind of hysteria that is
expressed by the hysteria of the police forces against the Cubans.  That
attitude reminded me of Hitler's gestapo.  All of this leads to Nazism and
fascism.  United States publicity does not in any way fall short of the
methods of Boebbels.  Over there, there is no dissent.  Anybody who
dissents is ruined and does not get anymore publicity.

(Munoz next read a cable on the coming shutdown of the Nicaro plant,
which was announced in the United States.)

The sent a communication to the Ministry of Labor.  The letter of
course started out with:  "Dear Mr. Minister"; the letter indicated that
they were thinking of closing it down within 30 days, as of the date of the
communication, and they pointed out that they wanted certain guarantees
before any further conversations were held.  They have been exporting this
mineral without paying any taxes.  In order to avoid paralyzing the plant,
we were prepared to discuss even the purchase of the plant.  And these
conversations were indeed in progress.  But they kept extracting mineral
for a certain period of time, without paying taxes, and we let them, simply
in order to avoid a shutdown.  If this mineral is so strategic and if they
need it so badly, then let them pay taxes.  The tax amounts to 1/25 of a
percent.  They spend more than a million dollars in espionage and more than
40 billion on arms, in the Department of Defense. And that is a country
which has been taking mineral out of Cuba for many years and which does not
even pay 1/25 of a percent in taxes.  But that is the end of that.  If they
do not want to pay the taxes and if they do not want to discuss the
situation and if they want to shut the plant down, then let them shut it

The only thing we can tell the workers at Nicaro is that they should
not worry.  And, furthermore, they should be on the alert to prevent any
sabotage or any damage to machinery and they should also see to it that no
equipment is taken away.

The workers must be on the alert so that no parts or machinery will be
removed.  We will not continue to tolerate this plunder of our mineral
indefinitely.  They have been loading up their ships without paying the
mineral tax.  We have always been more than willing to give them every
necessary facility.  This problem can be solved, like all other problems.

The Canadians also have big nickel mines going here.  It is they who
are hurt.  Now the Canadian will get control of the nickel.  Our relations
with Canada certainly are good.  After all, we are a big nickel power.  The
plant, worth 120 million pesos, was paid for in 5 years.  And now we have
these installations here.

The Moa facility was divided into 2 parts.  They put half of the plant
here and the other half there.  The plant here is no good without the plant
there and the plant there is no good without the plant here.  They are
hysterical.  They have lost all common sense.  All right, one of these days
we will tell them to shut that plant down and pull it out and someday we
will complete the part of the plant that we need here in order to begin to
process nickel.  Of course, this will take time, a number of years.  There
will be difficulties.  But there will be no problems as far as nickel is
concerned because the entire process is carried out here.  The plant is
complete.  If they want to discuss, we will discuss with them.  The fact
that there is no discussion is their fault, not ours.

Return to the United Nations

Whenever new circumstances so require, we will go back to the United
Nations.  But we do not know when.  Everything depends on the
circumstances.  We would be most happy to go back to the United Nations.
If they do not want us to come there, then they will have to switch the
United Nations from New York.    The world has learned of our position
statements to the United Nations.  Statements made in the United Nations
cannot be controlled. This is why we are fighting the struggle for peace
and disarmament.  My personal impression is that the warmongers there are
on the defensive.  The need for peace is something that is visible in all
nations of the world.  The peoples of the world understand this and they
realize that an atomic war would be a disaster.  All of the underdeveloped
countries know that there is no possibility for their development so long
as there is an arms race and a threat of war.  Whenever Eisenhower makes a
statement, it is certainly not in favor of the underdeveloped countries.
He cannot break away from the monopolies.  The monopolies need the
underdeveloped countries for the purpose of investing their money there.
This is their philosophy and their power.  They need the money which they
get from the workers of Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, they have to invest
their profits wherever manpower is cheapest and wherever the investments
will produce the greatest profits.  The government of the United States
cannot divorce itself from the monopolies.

Monopoly Governments

They treat the countries of Africa and Latin America as if they were a
special reservation for their investments alone.  And so they have seized
natural resources, industry, public services and utilities, the mines, the
petroleum, etc., over a period of years.  They need the underdeveloped
countries for investments.  The government of the United States is a
government of the monopolies.  The aspirations of the underdeveloped
countries for help from the highly industrialized countries cannot be
carried out if the highly industrialized countries spend a hundred billion
dollars on armaments.

Yes, a hundred billion dollars.  In other words, with 1/5 of this
hundred billion dollar figure, the underdeveloped countries could be
enabled to develop at a growth rate of 10%, per year.

Disarmament could signify a decrease in the contributions and taxes
which weigh so heavily on each and every one of these countries and it
could mean that these economic resources could be used in helping the
underdeveloped countries.  But they do not want disarmament. Disarmament is
something that is good for the whole world and especially for the
underdeveloped countries.  This is why disarmament would be so helpful and
beneficial to humanity.  The arms race has always led to war; the solution
of the world's problems includes disarmament and peace.  Quite evidently,
Eisenhower never spoke of disarmament nor colonialism, etc.  How could he
possibly talk about all this if his allies still have colonies?  The
position of the United States government is weak.

United States Has No Ethics

The United States is a country of moral and rational indigence.  They
have no commonsense there.  Everyone of the leaders came there to express
his viewpoints but the United States had nothing to say.  The United States
has an automatic majority because it controls the delegations.  Some of
the Latin American delegations sometimes do not join in the applause simply
because they are watching the United States delegation and simply because
they want to wait to see what the American delegation does.  And when the
assembly applauds, the United States delegation takes notes on who does
what and who applauds.  This is terror.

The lack of hospitality by Americans toward visitors is notorious. They
simply do not know how to discharge the obligation of being hospitable.
They have played a disastrous role there in this respect. They have lined
up with Japanese and German militarism, they have joined up with the
gangsters, they have sided with the worst in the world. If the members of
the assembly had freedom of action, the United States would be left with 8
or 10 allies, no more. If reason and right had a change to prevail there
and if the members of the assembly were free, the United States would be
reduced to 7 or 8 votes.

Khsrushchev Is Genial

We do not know when Khsrushchev will come to Cuba.  He is a very genial
person; he is extraordinarily human and very sympathetic.  If he were to
spend 6 months in the United States, he would get more votes than Kennedy
and Nixon.  He has a great sense of humor.  In addition, nobody can refute
his arguments.  Although Khsrushchev is a grandfather, he has tremendous
energy; he is tremendously high-spirited and he is a great fighter.  He is
an extraordinary type of man.  I am sure he will come to Cuba.  He has
tremendous sympathy for the Cuban Revolution.  Nasser will come in March
and Nkrumah will come by the end of the year.

Great Corruption in the United States

Now Yankee reaction has unleashed its hatred against the Cubans. This
is Nazism. All of this reminded me of the stories they told about Nazism.
From what I was able to see, there is tremendous corruption there. There
are gaming and gambling tables everywhere. The men who beat up the Cubans
then very calmly sat down to gamble; gambling is an institution there. They
think they can buy anybody. They do not respect anybody or anything. Now we
have a tremendous obligation, a great duty toward the Cubans who are there,
and that is to help them come back. We simply cannot leave them stranded
there. They are like the first Christians under the Roman Empire. The noble
people are being mistreated while all kinds of traitors and assassins and
spies are rewarded there. These noble people have tremendous devotion for
Cuba. They cannot be intimidated. There were always at least a thousand
people around the "Theresa," men and women, and whenever a police car would
pass by, it would be met with a veritable rain of rotten eggs; and when the
police wanted to arrest some of these people because they would not move
on, the others always tried to rescue them from the police. This is all
just like the way it used to be under Batista. The negroes constitute the
most advanced group in the United States. In spite of all the campaigns
against them, they could not be defeated. They told us: how could we
believe what the newspapers tell us about Cuba if they have been telling
all this slander about us all these years?

Against Racial Segregation

We are thinking of submitting a motion to the United Nations against
racial segregation in the United States.

It is necessary to guarantee that the Cubans can live in peace there.
We must prepare a new settlement for them so that they can return and we
must also give them job preference.  Over there, they are barred from jobs.

But there are also Americans who are friends of Cuba.  These are very
courageous people.  They confront the entire power of the press, the power
of money and repression.  They are heroes.  They are brave enough to act in
accordance with their conscience.  Certainly, the authorities are going to
try to make life impossible for them their because the enemies of Cuba are
resentful people, full of hate.  All of this will end in fascism -- that is
all there is left.  The only thing for imperialism is to disappear or to
turn into fascism.

Each Day There Is Less Civility

The people of the United States are powerless to act; the minority
groups control the country.  The two presidential candidates are cowards
and hypocrites. Each day, there are less and less legislators who have the
civic courage to act.  When the imperialist press sets the standard and the
pace, anybody who objects is crushed.  The politicians are cowards and they
are afraid to speak out of fear that the publicity media will destroy them;
and each day, there are less courageous people.  Cyrus Easston spoke with
open friendship.  This is one man who dares disagree.  He was prepared to
help us and to help the Cubans.  He keeps his own council and they cannot
call him a Communist because is is a millionaire; he has 200 million
dollars.  They have a tremendous problem with him; he is friendly with
Khrushchev and he said that he had confidence in us and that he is prepared
to help us.

There are many extraordinary people in the United States -- it is a
shame that they do not have a chance to speak out.  The monopolies control
all public information media and without information media, nobody can say
anything.  Those who speak the truth and those who have a message to pass
on must do so in very small publications with a very small circulation.
There are many people with good ideas and intellectual circles but they
have no way of taking action.  They are swamped by the controlled press.

There Is a Third Candidate

Very few people know that there is a third presidential candidate in
the United States.  But that candidate cannot speak on television.  This is
fascism.  They have two parties, but the people has no chance of choosing
anybody.  The only right the people have is not to vote.  The men who
nominated Kennedy and Nixon found out that these two will not do but now
they cannot get rid of them.  They are two illiterate fellows, they look
like puppets, like two toys of the big interests.

This trip taught all of us a lot.  We did not eat the shark but at
least we took a good bite out of him.  Yes, we bit the shark.

They Will Try to Invade Us

The militia forces are going to have a chance to wipe out a number of
small counterrevolutionary groups.  The work they are doing will not be in
vain.  Everybody will get a crack at them.  We will not assign the entire
mission to the Rebel Army; a portion of the mission will be assigned to
the militia.  I have certain pieces of information which enable me to
figure out more or less what their thinking is.  They are going to make the
mistake of landing those groups.  Imperialism will launch  these little
groups.  There are always many possibilities here; they thought that they
could capture the Isle of Pines but then they dropped the idea because it
looked too difficult.  They might also launch an act of provocation against
us from Guatemala or some other puppet government's country.  I do not know
how they are going to do this exactly.  If anyone of these puppet
governments should declare war, we will blast right back and if they come
here, they will know they have been in a fight.  These puppet governments
have been creating a wave of hysteria about the Caiman base.  We talked
about this in the past so that they could not use it as a pretext.  Among
the probable alternatives is this:  they might land a counterrevolutionary
group, equipped with their weapons, and they might try to probe our
positions because they have always underestimated Cuba and they think that
the revolution is incapable of destroying them.

As the imperialist campaign and the enemy reorganize, they keep looking
for allies.  They have many resources and much money.  We must make proper
use of our resources, the people.  Not a single counterrevolutionary
element must escape the vigilance of the people.  We will gradually
continue setting up the vigilance committees, building by building,
district by district.  We have organized the militia for the frontal
struggle.  We must now organize the people for the underground struggle of
imperialism.  All of the revolutionaries will be in the committee, even the

Always Fighting On

The people were not frightened by these little bombs.  They are
becoming tough; their hearts are being tempered. For us, it is always
better to fight than to loaf around here, in government offices.  We are
always fighting, against illiteracy, against unemployment.  We find
struggle to be exhilarating.  Besides, this is the only way you can make
history.  We are in the basic secondary course of revolutionary political
law.  On 10 October, a very important meeting of teachers and workers will
be held on our education program for next year.  We are going to teach all
illiterates how to read and write.  We are going to provide 200,000
teachers.  Everybody must find two illiterates.  We are going to use
television to explain the methods described in our textbooks.  Everybody
who learns how to write will get a book as a gift.  All of these
periodicals will participate in the counterrevolutionary campaign; all of
this paper that used to be wasted, all of this effort by the workers will
not be spent teaching the people to read and write every 48 hours.  The
literacy campaign will be conducted city by city.  We are going to employ
all of the human resources available in the cities for this campaign.  We
must put out at least 2 million textbooks.  The illiteracy rate in our
country is 37.5%.

I hope that you will invite me from time to time to speak here over

Armed Action

We must keep in mind that men are the playthings of circumstances. This
policy of recruiting mercenaries and arming them and buying aircraft will
always end in action. But they will all be wrong, the marines, and all the
others. They talk of support from the United States government. This is
what gives all of this impetus to the counterrevolutionaries. They believe
that Cuba can be broken with economic aggression. Well, they do not know
this country. They underestimate this country. The policy of hostility, all
of these acts of systematic aggression will increase. And more money will
be spent on assassination and terrorism. They are looking for anybody who
will do anything for money. How many accomplices and squealers we used to
have here! Some people tried to get us to adopt drastic measures. They
mention the attempt on Pardo.

Let no one entertain any illusions.  Let the other side know that we
have laws here and that justice will strike the guilty.  Let the spies and
the other types beware.  The firing squad may be waiting for them here.

A Long Struggle

But we must not lose our calm composure. We know that this is a long
struggle. We must prepare our hearts and our minds for the fight against a
powerful enemy. Assassinations, terrorism, counterrevolutionary campaigns
-- they are going to spend millions of dollars on all this. We have a
tremendous inheritance here which is threatened. The past has left us with
a scum without ethics, without conscience, without principles. There are
tens of thousands of such people. In the future, these people will not be
around when the younger generation grows up. They are the instrument of
imperialism, that entire crew. When they really launch their big attempt,
we will hit them hard. And there will be nothing left for them to do but to
accept defeat. So far we have never failed. In the meantime, they will
launch their groups. And in the end they will have to pull out.

We must create an Academy of Dramatic Arts.  We must take up the
problem of these unspeakable American movies.  We must do something about
these films and magazines and international agencies, all of which are in
the hands of monopolies and all of which are intended to exploit us.  We
must arm the people with the necessary elements of judgement and knowledge
so that everybody can draw his own conclusions.  Here we must have
interpreters of all languages.  We are not going to sleep on this here.  If
the people of the United States were not educated in this way, they could
have some great citizens emerging there.  This is a painful truth because
they are a working people, but...

It was 0230 in the morning when Comrade Luis G. Wanguemert, after
asking Dr. Castro whether he had anything more to say, concluded the
original program which had taken on an illustrious character with the
presence of the maximum leader of the Cuban Revolution.

Collective Vigilance, Vigilance of the People

"Operation Neighbor."

Some native people really thought that the "marines" were about to come
and that the fat is in the fire.  We are going to establish a system of
collective vigilance; we are going to establish a system of collective
revolutionary vigilance.  And we are going to see how the lackeys of
imperialism now manage to get around because, in the final analysis, we all
live in the city, all over, and there is not a single apartment house in
the city, not a single block, not a single district or neighborhood which
is not amply represented here.  In response to the aggression campaigns of
imperialism, we are going to set up a system of revolutionary collective
vigilance and everybody will know who lives on the block and what he does
and what relationship he had with the tyranny; and we will know what he
does, with whom he associated, and what kind of activities he pursues.  If
they think that they can get at our people in this way, they will find that
they are very wrong because we will set up a revolutionary vigilance
committee in each block; we will make sure that the people will be on the
alert and observe; when the mass of the people is organized, not a single
imperialist, not a single lacky of the imperialists, no traitor to the
imperialists, no tool; of the imperialists will be able to move.