Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC


Havana Domestic Television and Radio Services in Spanish 2224 GMT 26 Jul 71

[Speech by Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro at the Plaza de la Revolucion,
marking the 18th anniversary of the assault on the Moncada barracks--live]

[Text] Guests, representatives of friendly governments and countries,
comrade workers: We cannot conceal the fact that we were deeply moved at
hearing the words expressing the feelings of the people of Bolivia and
Chile. [applause]

This to us has a profound meaning--for the years we have lived, for the
years of isolation criminally imposed by Yankee imperialism--to see that
now, on this 26th, with simple, expressive, and emotive words, the voices
of the brother people are heard. This shows us that in the forthcoming
years we will be able to hear more and more voices. [applause] Moreover,
the annihilation which they tried to impose on our Latin American brothers
in one way or another will be riddled to pieces.

Naturally, we would like to devote this 26 July rally to issues connected
with these events and the revolutionary movement in Latin America and the
world, but the fact is we are burdened with other obligations. For one of
our basic duties is not just to encourage and stimulate the struggle of
people, but also to win our own harsh and arduous battle in our country.

Over the past year we presented a harshly self-critical exposition of a
number of problems we are facing. We recall perfectly how our 26 July
speech served to let the imperialist spokesmen and agencies reply with a
huge campaign. At the time, it concerned the Chilean process.

They sought to use our words to sow dismay among the Chilean people who
were on the eve of holding elections. Nonetheless they failed to confuse
the Chileans. They failed in their objective. The masses were capable of
distinguishing things perfectly. They were able to see the problems a
revolutionary process can entail, and they were able to grasp that to make
a flank and open analysis revolutionary valor is needed; revolutionary
morality is needed; revolutionary dignity is needed. [applause] To tell the
people the truth [applause] one must be revolutionary.

The distortion of our words gained no results in Chile, and the Chileans,
undoubtedly like any other revolutionary people, are confronting, and will
have to confront, the difficulties of the revolutionary process. For
revolutions have their price.

Revolutions are not born to enjoy what has been done; revolutions are waged
to create what is nonextant. Frequently this must be done on the basis of
poverty, wretchedness, underdevelopment. [thunderous applause]

The imperialists did not leave us a paradise. The imperialists did not
leave us technical knowledge, they did not leave us a developed industry
and economy, they did not leave us a cultured people. Rather, they left the
reality of a country wherein illiteracy was 30 percent, where those who
reached the 6th grade were a scant minority in the country.

Moreover, they did the unspeakable when they took away the technicians.
They have done the unspeakable to cause revolutions to fail. It was our lot
to have been the first. Let us hope the imperialists learn from Cuba's
lesson. Let us hope other people will not have to go through our trials.
Let us hope they will not have to suffer new aggressions, gross isolation.
But, of course, the isolation applies to Cuba. For we are sure that it
would not apply to any country in Latin America because we will stand by
the revolutionary governments and people. [applause]

Let us hope they too will not have to suffer the nonsense of the
imperialists. And we recall the first great nonsense which consisted of
snatching from Cuba 100 percent of its sugar quota. Later they went to the
American capitals bribing oligarchic, corrupt governments, offering them
our quota so they would join the blockade, the aggressions against Cuba.

Recently we have witnessed again how the imperialists try to manipulate
those quotas to put pressure on various Latin American governments. They
again are trying to repeat the formula, but times change, circumstances are

Our people are proud and pleased to have played their role, to have
fulfilled their duty vis-a-vis the imperialists. They are proud and pleased
to have fought not only for their own destiny, but also to save other Latin
American countries from having to undergo the circumstances which we

But of course, imperialism today is much weaker, incomparably weaker. In
1959 it shined all-powerful, omnipotent, it still inspired respect. It
inspired fear. But actually, now, it inspires neither fear nor respect from
anyone. [applause]

The power structures have greatly changed throughout the world. The
socialist camp today is stronger, more united, and more powerful. The
revolutionary movement has grown at the same time that imperialism has
continually weakened during the past few years. The peoples' struggle has
weakened it and, particularly, the heroic struggle of the Vietnamese people
[applause] which has dealt imperialism great defeats.

After these words regarding international matters--a subject which we would
like to return to at the end of our speech--on this anniversary we would
like to briefly go over the efforts made by our people during this year.
[applause] We would like to beg your forgiveness if we have to give figures
in doing this as we have done on previous occasions. Please allow us to
make an analysis of our problems.

As you may recall, a working policy was set for the party, mass
organizations, and the people. It was necessary to make a special effort,
and we had to do it with the masses through revolutionary methods. We
stated that we could not expect any miracles; that we simply had to work
and struggle regardless of impediments and difficulties; that we would not
depend on objective factors which were beyond our reach, but depend on
those which were within easy reach. In connection with this, the year that
has just ended has been one of arduous effort; a year in which we have
worked hard and struggled incessantly.

During this year there have been seven national rallies on production and,
in addition, the national congress on education and culture. These national
plenary sessions on production required a lot of work at all work centers
and industries.

National plenary sessions were held by the light industries, basic
industries, food industries, mining, fuel and metallurgic industries, the
merchant marine and ports workers, transportation workers, and the
petroleum institute. A total of 2,806 rallies on production were held at
work centers in the respective industries. We must add to this the
preliminary plenary sessions on education which were held prior to the
national congress on education and culture, since the comrades in the
education field had to hold rallies to discuss the problems concerning
educational services. We must mention the sugar industry rallies that have
been held even though the national plenary session has not taken place. It
will be held at the end of August.

These make a total of 5,596 rallies on production and services with the
participation of 412,706 workers. The national congress on education and
culture, which was based on 2,415 rallies of the rank and file with the
participation of 87,774 educational workers and which was most important as
it laid down a policy on education and culture, was prepared by the
educators themselves. This congress was also held during the past 12

The process of the strengthening and democratization of trade union
organizations took place during this period of time. Elections were held at
35,520 union locals. Some 152,274 workers were elected from among 279,372
candidates who were nominated and discussed in more than 30,000 nominating
rallies. Some nine national trade unions have already been established, and
it is expected that the rest of them will be established before next May
Day. The congress of workers will be held during the second semester.

During the same period of time the workers discussed the labor merits bill
which was analyzed by 1,035,685 workers in 29,385 rallies. After the
resolution was adopted, the workers have held labor merit rallies every 6
months at all work centers. Labor merits have been acknowledged and posted
in the records of 918,264 workers in the second 6emester of 1970, and
1,247,560 workers in the first semester of 1971 during thousands of
meetings held for that purpose. As you all know, during labor merit rallies
the adopted resolution is discussed by all workers. They have adopted many
concepts as standards, be it the participation in sugar harvest work,
volunteer work, or other work, and it was decided to include cases of
workers who had donated blood when asked to do so for the Peruvian people.
This was included among the labor merits because of its revolutionary and
internationalist meaning.

All those matters that can be considered a meritorious action on the part
of the worker are posted in their records. The record is the letter of
introduction for every worker in our country.

Also during this year, the workers, students, peasants, Revolutionary Armed
Forces [FAR] and Interior Ministry [MININT] combatants, and the Cuban
Women's Federation [FMC]--3,275,000 meeting in 115,000 assemblies--in a
word, the people themselves discussed and approved the antivagrancy law
[applause] which has been a formidable stride forward in our people's
awareness. It also has been a splendid training and disciplining

The provisions of this law, like all questions concerning labor justice in
the factories, are enforced by the working councils elected by the workers
themselves. This means the workers studied, analyzed, discussed, and
approved the law. Also, it was the factory workers themselves who chose the
judges that enforce that law and other labor justice ordinances.

This year, too, the membership of the working councils was renewed. This
occurs every 3 years. Some 11,049 working councils have been renewed. These
comprise 60,000 labor judges who apply labor justice, who safeguard the
duties and the rights of each worker.

The presidents of these councils will undergo training courses in the
national labor judges school. Thus the workers not only pick the members of
the working tribunals, that is, the labor councils, but a preparation and
training policy is implemented. It is then the people who make their laws
and select and train their judges.

By the same token under the direction of the party, other mass
organizations have been strengthened and invigorated along with the labor
movement. These include the GDR FMC, National Association of Small Farmers
[ANAP], and the student movement.

It would take some time to list the activities carried out by our mass
organizations and the advances made during these past 11 months. We just
want to point up some salient achievements, above all, because of their

For instance: With respect to the masses' participation in resolving
problems, there is the case of the CDR's activities in various projects.
[applause] As you know, the CDR has 3,222,147 members. These are organized
into 67,547 base CDR.

One of the symbolic tasks--wait, not symbolic, for it is a symbol of what
the masses can achieve--we have the case of the Latin American stadium
[applause] with a view to the world baseball championship it the end of the

It was necessary to revamp, renew that stadium. The CDR was asked to help
In addition to their responsibility for maintaining it, in addition to all
their numerous activities, the CDR tackled the new task of expanding and
beautifying the Latin American stadium. More than 200,000 CDR members
worked at this task, performing more than 500,000 hours of volunteer work.
[applause] The result speaks for itself--the manner and face at which that
work was done in just a few weeks. But it is only fair to acknowledge the
technical support and direction given by the DESA [not further identified]
and other organizations for that project.

Another basic task of the CDR involves blood donation. They have set a
record in our history. They have overfulfilled the goal of 120,000 [measure
not given] they had set. [applause] As you may recall, when the quake
occurred in Peru last year, there was an urgent need to send plasma, which
is made from that blood. This year too, due to the unfortunate natural
disasters in Chile--another quake-our country immediately was able to
provide modest aid. This included blood plasma, which is a product used in
such emergencies. The CDR also has constructed and repaired 34,400 houses,
painted 58,200 houses and repaired 2,700 schools.

The FMC members likewise have worked hard this year. They now have
1,401,348 members, organized into 30,217 base organizations. As for the
student movement, the Federation of Middle Education was formed. This
groups. together all the secondary schools, preuniversity, and techological
institute students. The organization works through a strong movement of
nonprofessional activities. The entire process was implemented in close
consultation with the student masses.

The organizational separation of the Union of Young Communists [UJC] and
the Federation of University Students [FEU] [words indistinct] in the
country. One was left as a political organization, and the other as a mass
organization. Later the FEU of Cuba was formed. The entire process was
implemented in close consultation with the students.

The structure of the Cuban Pioneers Union was changed into a children's
mass organization, autonomous, with its own personality and the support of
all other mass organizations and government departments.

In the same manner the peasants worked within their organizations, and they
are getting ready for the congress of peasants by the end of the year. This
has been a year of historic efforts in all fields. These efforts made by
the workers, mass organizations, and the administration under the
leadership of the party have had some concrete results already which are
the fruits of the plenary sessions on production and the general measures
adopted. We will mention a few examples.

During the first semester of 1971 as compared to the first semester of
1970, the productions of plain cloth increased by 15.6 percent; leather
shoes by 18 percent and the total increase of shoe production including
plastic and rubber shoes amounted to 26 percent; corrugated cardboard boxes
by 18 percent; face soap by 18 percent; toothpaste by 14 percent; furniture
by 37 percent; art crafts by 27 percent. The total production of light
industries increased by 10 percent.

The fulfillments of the basic industry during the first semester of 1971
amount to 20 million pesos more than what was accomplished during the same
period in 1970 and represents an increase of 15 percent. During the first
semester of 1970 there was a total of 32,910 workers in factories and
enterprises with a yearly average productivity of 7,592 pesos per man.
During the first semester of 1971 there is a total of 34,206 workers in
factories and enterprises with a yearly average productivity of 8,414 pesos
per man, which represents an increase of 822 pesos per man.

Of the 87 specific generic products selected in 64 commodities, an
outstanding increase can be noticed during the first semester of 1971 as
compared to the same period of 1970. Some products such as paper [sentence
not completed] The paper program during the first semester of this year had
a projected production of 51,750 tons, The actual production was 51,700
tons for a 100 percent fulfillment, This represents an increase of 10,000
tons over the same period during last year; in other words an increase of
23 percent.

Some 27 million more bottles were produced during this year as compared to
last year, or an increase of 47 percent. The Orlando Cellular factory was
the most outstanding in this production. Of a projected production for the
semester of 40,534,000 units, it manufactured 58,906,300 units for a 45
percent increase. During the year 1970 the Orlando Cellular factory
manufactured 60,095,000 units, in other words the factory has accomplished
a production during the past semester almost similar to the total
production of last year. When I stated 45 percent increase, I did not mean
increase. The increase is much greater in this factory. This was only the
accomplishment in this case.

The glass industry also attained an increase In a projected production of
21,301,000 units. It manufactured 25,351,700 units. In general, this
production represented an increase of 47 percent. The rehabilitation and
improvements of the environment of the Rayonera de Matanzas has been
completed. As you may recall, that factory had problems due to
sulfocarbonate, which had been recorded at unsafe levels. The work done is
of great quality as demonstrated by all the tests that have been made.
During several weeks the tests have only shown eight to 10 parts per
million of carbon bisulfate in the environment. The safe acceptable level
is 20 parts per million. This factory has now been reformed in a manner
that provides safe levels of environment that do not affect the health of
its workers.

The national industries for domestic products and utensils manufactured
11,080 refrigerators of a projected production of 10,240 units during the
semester. Last year it manufactured only 470 refrigerators during the first
semester. This year it has manufactured 11,080. During all of 1970 there
was a total production of only 117,938 pressure cookers. During the first
semester of this year the production amounted to 156,000. This is 51,262
more than during last year. The production of steel containers for
lubricants, glycerin, and other liquids amounted to 164,648 units. During
the same period last year the production amounted to only 106,142 units.
These items are manufactured at the Manuel Trejo factory in Havana.

The production of tacks and nails for the semester amounted to 3,794 tons.
During the same period last year the production amounted to only 1,890.4
tons. The increase this year was 101 percent.

As for aluminum containers for exporting toothpaste, medicine, tobacco, and
so forth, 22,562,800 units were produced. Compared to the same period last
year, this meant a rise of 49 percent.

Aluminum household utensils: During the first semester, 2,336,200 utensils
of this type were produced, as against 1,140,000 units last year--a 105
percent increase, more than double. This consisted largely of pans, jars,
aluminum drinking glasses, and so forth.

Welding electrodes: During the same time, 671.4 tons were produced, as
against 155 tons last year. Conrado Benites cable factory: The production
growth rate this year compared to last year was 37 percent.

Recovery of raw material: Notable increases were achieved during the first
half of the year--36 million glass containers were recovered, as against 25
million in the same period last year. As for paper, 22,694,000 tons this
year. compared to 18,582,000 tons last year. Junk iron, 27,000 tons this
year compared to 26,000 tons last year.

As for steel reinforcement construction rods, 51,553 tons were produced
this year--10,000 tons more than last year; a 23 percent increase.

Mechanical industry: The main products turned out by this enterprise in
1971 were: Collection center equipment, molds for housing and dairies,
products for the Agency for Agriculture and Livestock Development [DAP] and
the Ministry of Sugar, and steel and grey iron parts. During the first half
of the year some of these plants have been devoted to producing prototypes.
Some of these do not yet reflect the real value of the production turned
out during the first part of the year.

Nonetheless, this sector represents a growth value of 22 percent over what
was achieved last year in the same semester. One of the main reasons for
this was the possibility of laying down more or less stable production
plans for many of the factories.

Electricity: The average peak demand for electric power has been 1.7
percent higher during the first half of this year than it was in the same
period last year. The application of summer time has helped noticeably to
keep this increase down. We had no summer time last year. No doubt the
save-electricity drive helped because power output this year rose only
about 4 percent.

One contributing growth factor was the integration of some isolated plants
in north Oriente Province into the system. With the activation of the
Rente-Holguin 220 volt power line, the western system increased only 1

The termination and conversion of the Rente-Holguin 220 line to 110 volts
has alleviated the critical power situation that existed in northern
Oriente. Moreover, better use was made of the power capacity of
installations in Rente.

In the first semester of 1970, 445 kilometers of lines of all voltages were
installed. During the same period of 1971, 887 kilometers were installed
for a 99 percent increase.

As for maintenance of the 110 and 33-volt lines, an increase of 44 percent
was achieved, comparing both semesters. And, for maintenance of the 13.2
kilowatt and smaller lines, the increase comparing both semesters was 41

On 30 June 1970 there were 1,097,034 consumers. On 30 June 1971 this rose
to 1,110,168. Electric service was given to 13,134 new consumers. The
resources that were invested begin to produce important results--better
service and better line maintenance.

The foodstuffs industry: Production has risen by 9 percent, and labor
production also by 9 percent. Salient products are beer, 3 million more
cases than during the same period last year--a 92 percent increase
[applause]; condensed milk, an 18 per cent increase; evaporated milk, 14
percent; preserves, 71 percent; wheat flour, 7 percent; cookies, 40
percent; salt crackers, 15 percent; canned tomatoes, 48 percent; can
containers, 26 percent; animal meal for fodder, 29 percent; ice cream, 36

The Ministry of Mines has bean giving data on the organizations in which
the plenums were held. This was where all the problems were examined by the

The Ministry of Mines has achieved satisfactory fulfillment of the plans,
despite the fact it faced limitations for producing nickel with the
technical equipment of Nicaro and Moa. These, due to usage and year,
require technical resources for rehabilitation something which is not
easily available to the country.

Wherever production hinged on purely human factors and adequate technical
means, the results of the efforts and enthusiasm of the mineworkers could
be seen. Record production was received in some products: gypsum, dolomite,
ground barite, carbonate, feldspar, potassium, and the extraction of salt.
As for the last simple product, salt, during the first semester 112,621
tons were extracted. The most salt ever produced before was 74,751 tons in

Furthermore, there are 70,000 metric tons on the surface, and once this is
processed, stocks will have been considerably raised by the end of this
year. Of course, this climatically dry year has helped salt production.
Nonetheless, the main factors have been the workers' effort, the new
technology and the mechanization of the process which they introduced. This
is why such a record salt production figure was achieved. And we expect
that these workers will keep up the good work and continue to modernize and
improve the industry technologically.

Transport and ports: During the first 5 months of 1971 an increase of 8
percent was attained in kilometer-tons in the transportation of nonsugar
products compared to the same period last year.

There has been a noticeable increase in production at railroad shops to the
point that in some instances, such as in the case of general repairs to
motor-coaches, the same amount of work has been accomplished during this
period that was accomplished during all of 1970. The railroad shops at
Camaguey, Guantanamo, and Luyano have done an outstanding job. The Cienaga
shop had not done the same good work and it has fallen behind if we compare
it to the other shops and the efforts of railroad workers. Be it in the
railroad industry or truck industry, the main difficulty in the
exploitation of the equipment is the amount of time lost while loading and

Some favorable aspects in transportation have been the following: The
Havana port had reduced stored merchandise to 80,000 tons by May 1971 from
140,000 tons reported in May 1970; and the Santiago de Cuba port has
averaged a monthly delivery rate during this year of 35,800 tons compared
to 28,700 tons during 1969 and 28,000 in 1970. During the first months of
the year the transportation of minerals increased by 15 percent, lubricants
by 22 percent, sand by 32 percent, and web paper by 10,000 tons more than
during the same period last year.

The components of 101 gathering centers were transported out of Havana
during the period January to May. This, type of cargo was not handled last
year. The extractions of cement from the Merceron plant are larger than
those of previous years. The monthly transportation amounted to 40,300
tons, but the extraction needs were not satisfied because of a work
stoppage due to full silos.

Besides the difficulties noted in the cement industry, the most serious
problems were insufficient extraction 01 steel rods from Antillana de
Acero, insufficient extraction of cast iron from the Casio Martinez foundry
yards, unfulfillment in the transportation of concrete tubing, insufficient
extraction of fertilizer from several fertilizer plants, problems in the
transportation of cattle to Havana due to lack of adequate equipment. In
the factory of the old [Zen], the workers are constructing several trailers
that will help solve the deficiencies in the transportation of construction

In the transportation of passengers by bus there has been an increase of 8
percent in completed trips, mainly due to the improvements made in the
effectiveness of the Oriente equipment, which will also result in an
increase in that province with the additional buses that are gradually
being added. Another organization such as the fishing institute showed a
total of 47,391 tons of fish caught during the first semester of 1970, and
55,855 tons during the first semester of 1971, which amounts to an 18
percent increase. The production of medicine during the first 5 months of
1971 increased by 20 percent compared to the same period in 1970.

During the first 5 months of 1971 as compared to the same period in 1970,
the following increases are noted in the construction sector: 51 percent in
construction 101 percent in prefabricated items; 12 percent in materials; 9
percent in asphalt mix. In general, a total of 42 percent increase was
attained as compared to last year. [Fidel shuffles papers]

During the past 12 months from July 1970 to July 1971, industrial
construction has been completed or partly completed on 87 gathering
centers-expansion of the Uruguay, Venezuela, and Peru sugar mills; 14 rice
drying plants; milk gathering and distribution centers in Moron and Mayari;
coffee grinding plant in Fontanar; oil extracting plant in Regla; first
class bakery in Boyeros; grain elevator in Regla; Tolura plant of the swine
program; serum plant in Arroyo Arenas; plastic shoe factory in Santiago de
Cuba; expansion of aluminum container factory; eyeglass factory; fertilizer
plant in Cienfuegos; expansion of the electrochemical plant in Sagua la
Grande; computer center of the central planing board; cement factory,
second class, in Nuevitas; 220-volt power line between Santiago de Cuba and
Holguin; glass industry, first part of it already in production;
rock-crusher in Somorostro.

It is expected that during the second semester of 1971 the following
construction will be finished: 213 gathering centers, expansion of the
Antonio Guiteras, Urbano Noris, and Juan Manuel Marquez sugar mills, 18
rice drying plants; milk pasteurizing plant in Matanzas and Colon;
refrigerated storage in Santiago de Cuba; refrigerated storage in Guira de
Melena, which was dedicated 2 days ago; fishmeal plant in Havana; expansion
of the Jose Antonio Echavarria mill, Frank Pais mill, notebook factory,
Ingelmo shoe factory, Preston fertilizer, autobuses Mariel shop, and
O'Bourke thermo-electric plant--second unit; computer center in Santiago de
Cuba; Braulio Curouneau blackboard factory ceramics plant in Bayamo; rock
crusher in Quanajay, Tunas, and Daiquiri.

Work is going on in several other important projects which will be
completed after 1971. Such as: Expansion of the Antonio Maceo sugar mill; a
milk industry center; transfer of the milk plant at Zaza; milk pasteurizing
plant in Santiago de Cuba; rice mills in Pinar del Rio, Las Villas, and
Criente; rebuilding and expansion of the textile industry; standardization
of tanneries; repairs and expansion of Caibarien tannery; the fishing
complexes in Cienfuegos, La Coloma, and Santa Cruz; fertilizing plant in
Nuevitas; new expansion of the electrochemical plant in Sagua; ice plant in
Santa Clara; expansion of the Antillana steel mill; expansion of Vanguardia
Socialista; rock-crushing plants in Nieve Morejon, and Los
Guaos--respectively in Las Villas and Oriente Provinces.

In addition to this, there are 15 dam-building brigades at this time. There
are also 19 for constructing irrigation and draining projects; 18 for
industrial construction and assembly; 20 land-moving brigades supporting
social-industrial projects; 150 road and highway construction brigades; 122
social-economic construction projects brigades. These projects include:
four technological institutes, 16 secondary field schools, 42 dairies, and
20 villages.

It would take forever to enumerate the number of points in Oriente,
Camaguey, or Las Villas where roads and highways are now being built. It is
sufficient to state that just in the Escambray region eight are being

It would be endless to enumerate the points where secondary schools,
dairies, dams -- because 344 brigades are at work. And to these we must add
eight expressway building forces. These have just been organized. And at
this time they are supporting the land moving work for the collection
centers. To build 300 collection centers in such a short period is arduous.
Nonetheless, these eight expressway building forces, comprising an
aggregate of 24 brigades, will play an important role in the development of
the country. I do not know if you are getting too bored. [shouts of "no

I believe I am about to finish with the figures. Employment and
productivity of the labor force. The tasks related to the incorporation,
organization, and control of the labor force have received primary
attention. As a result of the mobilization effort made by the revolutionary
organizations, under the leadership of the party, and the recent
promulgation of the antivagrancy law we have succeeded in organizing our
labor resources. In the last 18 months, employment in the state civilian
sector has had a net increase of 218,000 persons, In this manner, am
employment level has been reached in this sector which exceeds 2 million
persons. For all practical purposes the male labor force reserve has been
exhausted. In the future the employment increases will have to come from
the female labor force reserve and from the male labor force deriving from
population increases.

Hence we can see the importance acquired by productivity increases. Great
strides have been made in the determination and adequate control of the
country's labor reserves. The population and housing census conducted last
year, the establishment of the identification card system which is being
implemented, and the application of the antivagrancy law will permit us to
set up an efficient system for this purpose. However, with regard to the
degree of utilization of the employed labor force, we still have enormous
reserves. Since September 1970, 1,500 labor centers have been selected
where all the pending work will be performed. In some cases basic work
organization and rationalization measures will be reactivated, measures
which will lead to increased production. The initial economic results
attained in 103 of these units show a production increase of 32 percent,
which is very promising, above all if one considers that the work norms
established are far from being rigorous and they are being fulfilled by 102

Adverse factors: This year has been extremely serious in this respect.
According to a study conducted by the Academy of Science--data collected by
the academy--from November 1970 to April rainfall throughout the national
territory was 50 percent of the historic average of the last 10 years. In
some provinces this average was below 50 percent--Pinar del Rio, 46
percent; Havana, 45.1 percent; Matanzas, 43.9 percent.

In the tobacco growing areas of Pinar del Rio during the critical tobacco
growing season the rainfall was only 16.6 percent of the historic average.
The December rains throughout the nation were 3.4 millimeters. In other
words, this amounted to 8 percent of the historic average of 41

This severe climatological factor has been felt especially in tobacco and
cane agriculture. It has also wielded influence, though to a lesser degree,
over rice and pastures. The Mate dam in Oriente, Negritos dam in Las
Villas, La Juventud and Ramirez dams in Pinar del Rio, are practically dry.
Nevertheless, the rice developing program continues to forge ahead with
full force.

At this time, we have just finished forming the (Buey) dam brigade, with
the combate [word indistinct] contingent. This is the fifth dam in Orient
Province and we expect to build it in 2 years. The Pedgregales dam will be
finished next year. Studies for the construction of the Bayamo dam are
being conducted. All this is aimed at continuing to create water reserves,
at continuing to create new supply sources for agriculture. The drought
really did not begin in November. Last year was a dry year. In the spring
of 1970--May, June, July, August, September--the rainfall failed to reach
the historic averages. Even in May the rainfall was 66 percent of the
historic average. In June and July, rainfall has been relatively light.

We should not let the storms which pass over the island from time to time
confuse us. However, in Oriente Province they have already started to feel
the effects of the drought in these last few months. The use of molasses in
the feeding of cattle has prevented worse effects in cattle raising. What
measures are being taken regarding tobacco? Resources have been increased;
forces have been organized for the building of small dams in all the
tobacco growing areas. Machinery has been assigned in order to exceed
planting by 4,000 caballerias. More resources have been allotted for the
transportation of organic fertilizer and such an effort has been made that
if normal conditions prevail throughout the year a production considerably
higher than this year's is expected. Concerning this matter of tobacco
growing, comrade Risquet has explained to us that studies which are being
conducted show the number of man days needed for 4,500 caballerias of
tobacco, including all cultivation tasks, and he told me that they are
equivalent to half the number of man days needed for the sugarcane harvest.
This means that tobacco is a crop that requires much manpower. In any
event, the maximum effort is being made.

We are still partially carrying over programs from last year in the sugar
industry. There are still investments in programs which have not been
completed yet. Naturally, these problems have manifested themselves in the
industry this year. On the other hand, last year the spring plantings for
the 1970 harvest were low. The winter plantings were low. So far this year
9,000 caballerias have been planted--approximately 5,000 more than last
year. A special effort will also be made for the winter planting.

The effects on the 1970 crop caused by the drought, the prolongation of the
harvest, the availability of less herbicides--because herbicides are a
magnificent resources but we must spend convertible currency to buy
herbicides [sentence not completed] this year the country has not had
available the same quantities of herbicides as last year. These
circumstances affected the 1970 or rather the 1971 harvest--the
availability of sugar--and will also affect the 1972 harvest. The situation
might be alleviated by 1973.

Now, in the first place, for the winter planting an effort is required such
as the one already made in the spring planting. Taking advantage of this
year's experience, we also need to finish the harvest early. The harvest
was prolonged this year but this was inevitable. We also need to repair
many of the sugar mills which began operating late last year. Many of them
could not begin the harvest early. Various problems contributed to the
inevitable prolongation of the harvest. The harvest could not be stopped
and we had to cut cane until July. To fulfill the country's commitments we
must begin the harvest early. Consequently, measures have been taken to
repair the sugar mills so that we can begin and finish the harvest early.
This is imposed on us by the new techniques--the machines--which force us
to harvest sugarcane during dry periods.

Therefore, this is a basic issue and we are already formulating the program
for each sugar mill so that the harvest can be completed early. With these
programs next year we can work the cane to the maximum, with machines, with
whatever means deemed necessary. We will not have large amounts of
herbicides available. One cannot acquire products when one does not have
the necessary resources. Consequently, the recovery from the effects of the
1970 harvest and the drought on sugar production will not be achieved until
1973. Well and good. Now we have a positive aspect of this harvest--the
introduction of new techniques which have permitted us to increase
production considerably. In essence this means the introduction of cane
burning and the Australian cane cutting system. This meant this year a
considerable savings in cane cutters' time. For example, in 1970--during
(?March), the peak month--we mobilized 363,000 cane cutters in the first
week; 358,000 in the second week; 357,000 in the third week; 359,000 in the
fourth week. This year during the peak month--February-we mobilized
220,000, 230,000, 236,000, and 236,000 cane cutters in each of the weeks of
the month. Savings: 134,000, 128,000, 121,000, 127,000 [presumably cane

This is an extremely important factor because the harvest has been taking
the bulk of our energies, the bulk of our working mass. practically
speaking, in the sugar cane. Harvest the methods used 4 centuries ago
prevailed. There had been no development in recent years in any country. In
our countries men were fighting machines because they were being dislodged.
The task has not been easy and the road toward a solution through
mechanization has been long, even though marked progress has already been
achieved in this area. However, in the meantime the collection center, the
burning of cane, and the Australian cane cutting system are providing us a
magnificent possibility of reducing considerably the labor force we are
employing in the harvest until we reach complete mechanization.

Next year we will have 300 centers. We will be able to employ this
technique much more extensively, and it could be said that in 1972 the
harvest can be carried out with 200,000 less cane cutters than in 1970.
This is tremendously important. This year we were able to employ for a much
shorter period the students from the technological and preuniversity
institutes. You must remember that the majority of the students from the
mid-higher schools has had to participate in the harvest from 4 to 5 months
every year.

This, of course, worked against the educational program. The case of the
rural schools, of the systematic participation of the students in
production, is different for the students have to leave the classrooms for
4 or 5 months to participate in these activities.

This year the mid-higher schools' programs can be followed much better.
These savings allowed us to better attend to other production activities.
It should be said that the country on all fronts has really made a marked
effort. We should recognize this fact. One could not say that everyone has
made the maximum effort. One could not say that everyone has made the
optimum effort. However, we can say chat in all fronts the last majority in
the country has made a maximum effort and has made the greatest possible
effort. The results cannot be translated into facts. Some of the factors,
such as those we have mentioned, were present.

As we were saying, we have had adverse factors. We mentioned the drought
and its effects. There was another adverse factor--an epidemic of African
swine fever which wan discovered practically in June, when it had already
spread some. Our country did not hide this situation, first because it was
a problem of morals, of public ethics; secondly, because such problems can
be resolved only by the masses. The origin of the epidemic has not yet been
ascertained. It could be accidental, or it could have been the result of
enemy activity. On various occasions the counterrevolutionary wormpit has
talked of plagues and epidemics; however, we cannot yet say categorically
that it was, either.

According to preliminary investigation, it began in the vicinity of Rancho
Boyero. We must also admit that despite the law and sanitary regulations
which have been established to protect the country from diseases, there are
people who are not aware of these problems, who go on disobeying these
rules. Our country depends on agriculture, animal production--that is, it
depends on plants and animals. These are our most important resources, both
for development and the country's welfare.

Plants and animals can both become victims of diseases. The sugarcane
suffers serious disease, that is, it is susceptible to serious diseases.
Cattle are susceptible to serious diseases. Citrus fruits are susceptible
to serious diseases. The same is true with almost all plants and domestic
animals. Our country must be particularly aware, therefore, of the
importance of sanitary measures which must be applied rigorously.

This epidemic has been very painful but it might serve to awaken our
awareness and to prepare us to prevent other more serious diseases.
Fortunately, this epidemic does not affect human beings; but, as you know,
there are epidemics in neighboring countries--Mexico and the United
States--where the more disease affects human beings. Cholera is also
rampant in Asia, Africa, and now in Europe. This teaches us the need to be
strict and the importance of sanitary measures.

Our ships and planes travel abroad, they cannot stop travelling simply
because 99 percent of our products must be imported. Our past economy was
based on the exportation of a few items and our hip have to transport then,
also our planes. We must be strict with discipline regarding these sanitary
measures. The epidemic caused us to sacrifice 410,000 pigs in Havana
Province. We had to burn about 33,000 grown hogs for sanitary reasons. The
little pigs could not be used For anything. Of the rest, some were used
industrially. We were able to use some in industry. This is a large
number--410,000 pigs. This was a strict measure; we could do nothing else.

Our country cannot be one of contemplations. It must react with vigor in
the face of problems. One thing we know is that other
countries--capitalistic countries--have not been able to eradicate this
disease. The conditions of our revolution, the policy of the masses, the
organized participation of the people were necessary to wage tremendous
warfare on this epidemic, and at this moment the epidemic is under control.
There has been no case in recent weeks. The epidemic has not extended to
other provinces. We have had to call back some hams which had been made
some months ago from pigs which had come from a pig farm where the disease
was also reported. These pigs had been butchered by people who did not
recognize the sickness in the pigs. Ham was made from some of these pigs
and it became necessary to find some of the ham. Some had left the province
but fortunately no symptoms of the disease was found.

This experience has taught us the solution to this problem, especially a
fast diagnosis. When there is no fast diagnosis the problem is worse
because necessary measures are not taken; but by experience we know how to
conquer this disease efficiently. We must continue on the alert.

In Havana Province approximately 36,000 pigs remained outside the area
where it was necessary to sacrifice the herds. As a result, on this 26th
day of the month there has been no additional delivery of pork meat in
Havana Province. All other provinces received additional meat. It would not
have been just in our opinion to have deprived the other provinces also.
Besides, we felt that the people of Havana, who in other things have a
higher consumption level, could well make this sacrifice. [applause] How
then, the province will recover from its epidemic. It fought it firmly and
efficiently; we will continue this task.

Now we have the problem of disinfecting all the pig farms. We must also
build the new centers that had been planned. It must be said that the
development of pig farming had reached a very important point in this
province. We already had a large number of brigades building breeding
centers. This work will continue by all means and the province will recover
from its blow surely and quickly. [applause] Many of the imported pigs have
not been touched by the epidemic either. We have been able to protect them.
Of course we must be careful and on the alert.

This epidemic has proven that there is little respect in this country for
sanitary regulations in connection with the raising of domestic animals.
This regulation was not invented by the revolution. It is a system from
past centuries. There has been a terrible liberalism in pig raising. Pigs
are raised just anywhere, without any consideration for human health, the
contamination of the environment, or of water. Pigs are raised just
everywhere. The same thing is true with loose cattle, which may be found in
parks or anywhere else. There must be measures against all this.

Of course, we will expect the sanitary regulations to be applied in a
correct way from now on. This is for the good of the people in general.
[applause] We must bear in mind how much medical services cost. Suffice it
to say that in the Education Ministry approximately 370,000 people attended
to the education of children and youths. This does not include the child
care centers. In public health there are more than 100,000 employees. Bear
in mind the cost of all this--hospitals, construction of hospitals,
struggle against epidemics, prevention of disease, almost 300,000 people
work in education and public health.

Let us be more responsible, We must be more demanding, we cannot allow the
raising of pigs in a Havana bathroom. [applause] What good are all the
sanitary measures, aqueducts, water purification, and all those other
measures to protect the peoples health if we behave uncivilized? We
increase the possibility of spreading diseases and epidemics among the
animals. This is precisely what we are struggling against.

The abundant solution to our problems comes from the large, modern, and
scientific centers. This was how the egg problem was resolved, and this
year production has already reached mole than 1.4 million units. Much over
100 million. Where do we get all this production? From isolated hens? From
chicken minifundai? No; from industrialized production, from chicken
raising centers, with adequate sanitary attention, with adequate feeding,
with highly productive chickens. Imagine our situation if egg production
were not regulated.

The same thing is true with milk and pig production, and with everything
else. Small farmers may still raise pigs if they have adequate
conditions--and we will now have to establish these conditions and correct
systems for pig raising. We cannot make large investments to import
breeders and make concessions with the risk that all may be lost.

The cattle must be cared for in the same way. Much effort is being made in
this industry. There are 42 brigades now working on dairies. We will have
more than 100 dairies before the year's end; and these installations will
be permanent, for life, not installations which may be blown away by a
cyclone. These are modern, sanitary, solid installations. This will resolve
our problem, not little cow farm or individual production which cannot
resolve any problem.

But we must make more vigorous and more public and sanitary regulations now
in effect so that the people may become more-aware of this problem. These
regulations must be obeyed. We will be much better off, thus we will be
more secure. We will gain more. If from this epidemic we can learn this
experience, despite the loss of 410,000 pigs, we will have gained a lot. We
will have prevented bigger evils. It is better to have the epidemic now
than after the development of our pig industry. The construction of units
is done with the Possibility of epidemics in mind, at convenient distances
one from another, and with all necessary measures. This adverse factor has
been resolutely resolved by the people. I am certain that the seriousness
of our country will result in confidence in it. Experts of several
countries have visited us recently; they witnessed all the work that was
done, and they were astonished at the mobilization capacity of the people,
to see what can be accomplished with the masses.

The time came when we had to kill the animals and collect the bones. They
asked how this was possible, However, the CDR's went into action,
distributed the little sacks [applause] and the bones were collected. In
this manner, a measure man, established whereby, though the pigs had to be
killed, many of the pig owners were able to eat the pigs.

Strides made this year: As explained previously these strides stem from the
efforts of our workers. This does not mean that the difficulties have
vanished, and, of course, that all problems have been solved. In fact,
there are subjective factors and there are objective factors present. There
are matters which we are able to solve and there are other matters which we
cannot solve. However, last year we expressed the idea that regardless of
the objective difficulties we were dutybound to make the maximum and
optimum effort in those matters which indeed we could solve. Our country is
facing objective problems.

Our country has lived under a virtual state of siege during the last 12 or
13 years. Imperialism has waged a war against our country during all these
years. This has caused us a large expenditure in terms of human, economic,
and all sorts of resources. We have been forced to defend ourselves by
making large expenditures in energy and resources.

Furthermore, imperialism has blockaded us, has hindered our commerce and
trade exchange. Here is a very clear example: Our merchant fleet, with 52
ships, can only transport 8 percent of the cargo transported, And many of
these are large ships. The average distance covered by our ships is 15,000
kilometers. Our sales of products, nickel for example, are encountering
difficulties. The sales of nickel in areas of convertible currency this
year encountered great difficulties and are still encountering great
difficulties as a result of pressures exerted by the U.S, imperialist
government. It has exerted pressure of nickel consuming countries and has
threatened not to buy machinery or product, from countries which buy Cuban
nickel. The imperialists are persecuting Cuban nickel everywhere. Our
country has had to Face sugar prices which for years were below 2 cents in
the areas of convertible currency.

In other words, there exist problems which cannot be solved simply with our
will. Our economy was one which relied on a few products. All other
products were imported. The supply system was practically a (?colonial)
system, because the industrial countries supply their colonies with
practically everything they consume. The develop the production of some raw
materials and some commodities. When a revolution is made, when the
traditional sources of supply for such merchandise disappear, these sources
are completely closed and the problems of a country in obtaining scores of
thousands of different items--ranging from a small screw, a nut-become
serious problems.

All our Latin American countries, to a lesser or higher decree, have and
will have these problems. There are some countries with certain natural
resources which can be easily exploited, and this represents a better
situation. In our country cane is the basic source. We had to cut it by
hand, employing hundreds of thousands of men under a burning sun. In the
past the capitalists and the colonialists established slavery for the
cutting of cane by hand, through immigration during various times. In the
revolution, this work has to be performed by the people, only the people
can and must perform this work, and the people have been performing this
task. This work has been done even by students and by persons not used to
this type of work. Consequently, the way to obtain our country's support
was not easy. It has not been easy. Our subsistence must really be obtained
with the weat of our brows, and with much sweat of our brows. Added to this
has been our inheritance--the accumulated poverty, technical backwardness,
economic underdevelopment, social backwardness, and all these factors.

Therefore, our country has had to develop under difficult objective
conditions. Well and good. Our duty is riot to have objective difficulties,
our duty is to face them, to seek solution, after solution. Naturally, we
are dutybound to overcome all subjective deficiencies. We are dutybound to
solve all organizational problems, all the deficiencies which we are able
to overcome. Naturally, we said, there might be a limit to what we can do.
I do not believe that some of these production figures can continue to be
attained at the same rate [word indistinct] because there is a point where
raw materials are lacking, there is point where equipment is lacking to
continue increasing production in some industries. These problems are not
easily solved.

We have the problem of the nickel mines--dot the mines but the plants,
which are very old and have been used for a long time. We want to ask the
workers to make a maximum effort in the maintenance, to maintain the
equipment in the optimum condition, but we cannot expect them to increase
production unless new capacities are established, unless new industries are

Thus, there are objective difficulties. We believe that at this rate of
growth in some of those branches, limitations will be confronted in
materials and resources. There are others in which we can go much further.
This can already be seen in Construction itself. We have the means, we have
the equipment today to achieve those increases. And we are Certain that
next year without a doubt we will achieve an increase equal to the one this
year--of 40 to 50 percent. We are certain even that in the second semester
of this year increases will exceed those of the first semester. To build a
dam, we need rocks, dirt, sand, cement; that is, materials we can process
the production of cement has increased. The [word indistinct] of 600,000
tons each are going into operation, the production of steel bars is being
accelerated; rock and sand will be processed with new installations.

The possibilities of increases are being demonstrated In construction
materials with the support of the masses. A construction work force has
appeared to be the solution in re cent months. They are the masses, the
workers building their own housing. In the month of August, 100
microbrigdes of industrial workers will be formed, and from now until the
end of the year, 500 will be incorporated. With their work, the industrial
workers will solve the housing problems throughout the country. We can
already see, for example, how some of those programs will turn out.
Naturally, the rate will be determined by the manner in which the
production of materials grows--cement, rocks, sand, blocks, bricks, and the
other construction materials.

In other words, there are some branches in which we do not depend
fundamentally on raw materials from abroad. We depend on the equipment we
have and do have available. I am making this clarification because, of
course, I do not want to create the impression that the solution to all the
problems is going to be easy. We must say here today that the effort made
must not lull us to sleep on our laurels. We must bay here today that the
efforts made and the achievements attained must see to make us now in the
next 12 months redouble our efforts. [applause]

Let us continue the mass policy, developing this mass policy. Let us
continue to strengthen the workers movement and that of the other
organizations. Let us continue the workers plenums, the national plenums,
the discussions with the workers on our difficulties and the search for
their solutions. We must continue to face adverse conditions as they arise,
and, in the moment when national conditions become favorable, then let us
recoup from these adverse circumstances. It is our most elemental duty.

And we can say with satisfaction that the people responded, that the people
responded all along the line, to the appeal issued last 26 July. Far one of
us has had a task in each period. On the date we commemorate today, we
recall the tasks that was required of others. We recall the sacrifices that
were required of others. We recall the dead, we recall those who sacrificed
themselves, those who gave all. How we have other battles, other tasks.
These tasks multiply, they grow. The needs increase not only because the
population grows. We have, for instance, in education--according to what
the comrades of Oriente explained to us--28,000 students entering the
Secondary schools this coming year, 28,000 students.

Now I ask, is this not a serious Problem? Is this not a tremendous problem?
Does it not indicate to us how our school needs are growing? Our need for
books, teachers. If we have come so far, if we eradicated illiteracy, if we
have already succeeded in having a huge mass of children reach sixth grade,
what do we do. Close our doors to them? It is not possible. And If we want
to channel that enormous mass that is the future, that is the true future,
that is the backbone of the society of the future, then we must gain an
idea of the efforts to be made. With the innovations introduced, with the
concept of the rural school which we are already applying with magnificent
results, this enormous youth force which in 1980 may increase to 700,000
students in secondary school cam become a formidable productive force
combining education with work.

The rural secondary schools are already the pride of our country and our
revolution. The construction rate this year has been one a month. We
expected to reach two a month by 1972. However, we now believe in the
possibility that in 1972 we may reach a rate of three a month. As I was
telling you, there are l6 brigades devoted to the construction of basic
rural secondary schools. Sixteen can now build some 25 schools, let us
suppose, in the first stage, however, when we say 28,000 students, how many
schools would be we have to build? More than 50, 56 schools for 28,000
students. If we build some 35 schools in 1972, it will be a great success.
Of course, this would be a rate of school development never dreamed of in
Cuba. If we build 40, it will be enough. We hope in 1975 to build 100 a

However, circumstances (?sometimes) force us to make an effort to reach
increasing rates, and the thing is we want to channel this student
explosion in some manner. It is enough to repeat the figure 28,000 students
in Oriente Province alone. That is the increase in the enrollment in basic
secondary schools in Oriente Province. This gives us some idea of the fact
that no matter how much we progress, how much construction is increased,
the accumulated needs are still too big--the past, present, and future
needs. The accumulated housing needs are too. big. The increases in housing
construction have been notable. Construction keeps increasing, and next
year, construction will increase even more. Thus, we can never feel
satisfied in our revolutionary work. We must not lose the awareness of our
needs for a single moment: The awareness of our poverty, the awareness of
our difficulties, the awareness that we do not live in the best of worlds,
that we are blockaded, that we are besieged, that the imperialists are
waging a Korean war against us, and that this situation will continue and
it will continue because the revolution will not turn back. It will go on
[applause] because the revolution will not hesitate. [applause] It will
continue because this revolution will not seek conciliation of any kind
with the Yankee imperialists [prolonged applause], and that is why we
figure that we will continue to be blockaded. We figure that we will
continue under siege. We figure that the imperialist war against us will
continue, and we will maintain the position of principle compromisingly, as
the revolution has done from the first day. There will be no concessions of
any kind to the imperialists, as was clearly stated on 19 April. [applause]

We will resolutely, bravely, and determinedly face all kinds of objective
difficulties, all kinds of problems. We trust the people, and facts have
once more shown it. On 26 July 1953, the previous 26 July, this 26 July.
Difficulties intimidate ingrates; difficulties [applause] discourage the
cowardly; difficulties scare the defeatists--but not the people, not the

It is impossible to forget that 26 July; more difficult circumstances, more
adverse circumstances. It is impossible to forget those days. For many,
theoretically our revolution was impossible. Theoretically, yes. Analysis
of the correlation of forces, of the enemies' weapons, of our weapons,
victory was theoretically impossible. In the prisons, in the most remote
places, faith in victory was never lost. Neither on 26 July after the
Moncada attack, nor 5 December after the Granma expedition was scattered;
nor when of only 10, two of us were left, never was the conviction and the
certainty of victory lost. [applause]

The theoreticians reportedly said: That revolution is impossible. The
theoreticians had said: That war is impossible. The theoreticians had said:
That correlation of forces between revolutionaries and the enemies of the
revolutionaries is impossible to overcome. But life teaches us that
impossible or apparently impossible things are possible in real life. It is
possible especially when the peoples of the world raise high ideas, when
revolutionary Ideas become the ideas of the masses, of the peoples; and
everything that seemed to be impossible was possible. The theoreticians
would say that revolution 90 miles from the imperialists is impossible;
that socialism 90 miles from the United States is impossible; that
communism [applause] 90 miles from the United States is impossible; that
Marxism-Leninism 90 miles from the United States is impossible. [applause]
And with the blockade, with threats, with acts of aggression, with
difficulties, it has been possible to carry on the socialist revolution 90
miles from the United States. It has been possible to carry on the
communist revolution and Marxism-Leninism 90 miles from the United States.
It has been possible to defeat the enemies ideologically. It has been
possible to defeat their incursions, their attacks, their threats. It was
possible to unite the people and that also seemed impossible. It was
possible to unite the people into a single force, into a single party. It
was necessary to unite the workers, the students, the women, the citizenry
in their organizations; hence the strength of the revolution.

From this comes its power of mobilization, demonstrated under all
circumstances. We still remember the day when the valiant fishermen
arrived, the day when they returned to our fatherland. [applause] It is
impossible to forget the spectacle of that afternoon. It was announced that
they would arrive in the afternoon. It was known in the morning, and yet
more than 300,000 persons gathered there at the waterfront. We cannot
forget that historic battle to rescue those fishermen whom the mercenaries
had kidnaped. The force of the masses, the energy of the masses, the morale
of the people won that battle and perhaps the lives of the fishermen.

The people, divided in the past, no one would have thought that they could
be what they have become today--this compact, solid force which defends
this revolutionary bulwalk 90 miles from the United States. These things
seemed impossible and they were possible and it is yet to be seem what
difficulties, what problems we cannot overcome. It has yet to be seen what
is impossible for this people; it is yet to be seen what is impossible for
the revolution. [applause] It is to be seen. These flags, gentlemen guests,
these flags, Latin American comrades, are firmly hoisted. They will never
be lowered. We shall not make a single concession to imperialism [applause]
we shall stand here firmly, erect, raising our [?banners) until the last
Latin American nation is liberated. [prolonged applause]

Chilean comrades, comrade Clodomiro Almeyda, (?your presence) has given us
today indescribable joy. You have given us great courage. The message from
comrade Salvador Allende touches the hearts of our people deeply.

This message from people to people from revolutionary to revolutionary, the
two peoples they criminally wanted to divide and who today are more united
than ever in defense of their independence, of their sovereignty, and of
their most sacred rights. [applause] The people were alone for many years,
warmed only by the encouragement of the revolutionaries, of the
revolutionaries who were not in power. For us today this salute is worth a
great deal, it fills us with courage and inspiration because it is a salute
from a revolutionary movement in power. [applause]

Bolivian comardes present here, the members of a representative
delegation--present here are representatives of the Confederation of
Bolivian Workers, [applause], representatives of the mining confederation,
representatives of all the departmental labor centers, representatives of
all the universities of Bolivia, representatives of the revolutionary
forces of Bolivia--their words, too, and their messages, fill us with
courage We rejoice today that representatives of the strong revolutionary
movements are present here on this stand. [applause]

If we (?look back) we see how circumstances change, how history inexorably
follows its course. The Chilean revolutionary process is in full swing, the
Peruvian revolutionary movement is in full swing. [applause] In each of
these countries, the characteristics are different, the methods are
different. Then there is the case of Uruguay. The armed struggle of the
Uruguayans is growing stronger, [applause] just as the Broad Front of the
Uruguayans is growing stronger and the people of Uruguay, seizing in
various ways on all the weapons of the tactical and strategic arsenal of
revolutionary struggle, are uniting, marching toward confrontation with the
oligarchs, and preparing to launch a battle at the end of the year, with
the support of the masses, to seize power from the oligarchs. It is not
possible to predict and we must not predict what may or may not happen, but
there is no reason to reject the possibility that by the end of the year,
in Uruguay, too, there may be a popular government ruling that country.

We shall always remember with infinite gratitude the battles waged by the
Uruguayan workers, by the Uruguayan students, by the Uruguayan
revolutionary organizations, by the Uruguayan Communist Party in solidarity
with Cuba. In those days, when betrayal and surrender were fashionable,
when imperialist domination was at its height, they frequently went into
the streets, demonstrating their solidarity, defying the [words
indistinct], defying the revolution [corrects self] repression, in defense
of the revolution.

We see how the Uruguayan movement is developing, both the armed movement
and the popular movement. We see how its (?parts) are developing, we see
how the forces are uniting and how they are fighting in the various fields
and we feel sincerely optimistic about the successes and the victories
which we are sure the Uruguayan people will achieve.

So, in the end, we do not believe that a single oligarchical government, a
single reactionary government, a single instrument of the Yankee
imperialists, will be able to maintain itself on this continent.

I want to return to the case of Bolivia. Inasmuch as the workers, the
students, the peasants, and the Peoples Assembly nave taken up the question
of relations, inasmuch a they have spearheaded a drive for relations with
Cuba--they are demanding relations, official relations with Cuba
[applause]--they consider that it will be good for the revolutionary cause.
They believe that it is right for the present process in their country.
They believe that it will help to unite the anti-imperialist revolutionary
forces of the continent.

We must say that our country in this matter of relations has maintained,
maintains, and will maintain a strict policy of principle. In declarations
made in July 1969 on our attitude toward the various processes, toward the
various governments, we said that economic or commercial relations were of
relative importance to us, but what was important was the process. We were
interested in the development of the processes in Latin America, of
revolutionary processes. We were interested in the development and the
establishment of governments with their own independent criteria We were
interested in governments capable of defending their national interests,
the resources of their countries, and of acting independently of Yankee

We explained our position with regard to Peru. Why did we maintain that
line? Why did we maintain that policy? Because we had seen the
nationalization of the Yankee oil interests, because we had seen the
agrarian reform, because we had seen a whole series of measures which we
could objectively term revolutionary. Revolutionary processes are not born
on the first day with an absolute definition. Revolutionary processes must
be analyzed in the light of the tendencies, of the currents of ideas, of
attitudes which are developed. We could not [word indistinct] and we had
said that we could not term the process, the government, Marxist-Leninist,
but that we could call its people objectively revolutionary.

The Bolivian case is to us particularly delicate, particularly sensitive.
Our history and our conduct are tied to the revolutionary movement. Our
history and our conduct are tied to the heroic struggle of Che Guevara in
Bolivia, [applause], to his revolutionary activities, to his revolutionary

In the past crimes were committee against the Bolivian workers, against the
Bolivian miners, against the Bolivian students. Crimes were committed
against the revolutionaries, against the guerrillas. Che himself was vilely
assassinated, without respect for his status as a prisoner wounded in

His body has disappeared. No one knows where his remains are today--on what
mountain, in what river, in what grave. One version is that his body was
turned over to the Yankee imperialists. What is true is that persons
involved in the assassination of workers, farmers, and revolutionaries
still occupy important positions. Some responsibilities toward history have
not yet been met. This must be kept in mind.

But these delicate questions, these essential questions will not lead us to
ignore concrete situations. They will not lead us to erroneous positions.
We are able to distinguish the present situation in Bolivia. We know that a
struggle is under way between the right and the left. We know of the
conspiracy of reactionary elements in Bolivia, supported by Yankee
imperialism, supported by the Brazilian guerillas determined to establish a
fascist government in Bolivia. And we know well that the interests of the
miners, of the peasants, and of the students are identified with the
struggle against re actionary, fascist plots; that the interests of the
Bolivian, people call for unity to crush coupist and fascist attempts. We
also know of the profound radicalization which has occurred in the Bolivian
people, in the Bolivian masses, of its tremendous importance, its
tremendous strength.

We believe that there are proper conditions for a revolution in Bolivia, we
cannot say it will be easy. We cannot ignore the big obstacles, and we
think the Bolivian workers, the Bolivian people should take advantage of
the present situation and intensify the struggle to radicalise the process.
We know that at this moment the imperialists, the coupists, and the
reactionaries are struggling to overthrow the government. From our position
as a revolutionary, from this position as a Marxist-Leninist, we see this
as the fundamental problem.

We are convinced that the important thing for Bolivia is to defeat the
reactionaries, the fascists, consolidate this opportunity, intensify the
process, and advance. If this is so, if this is what suits the interests of
the Bolivian people, the Bolivian workers, peasants, and students, we here
today express this 26 July that the petition, the request of the Bolivian
workers, and the struggle of the Bolivian workers, the struggle of the
workers parliament, the struggle of the students, of the peasants, for
relations with Cuba, will not find a negative response on the part of the
Revolutionary Government. [prolonged applause]

We trust that the process will (?radicalize). We trust that the reactionary
elements will be defeated. We trust that the crimes against the workers,
against the students, and against the revolutionaries will sooner or later
be found out. We trust that some day the Bolivian people will find the
conditions to demand justice and settle accounts with the lackeys, with the
assassins, and with the criminals, and meanwhile, every positive attitude
of the Bolivian Government will have our support. All independent gestures
of the Bolivian Government will have our support in pursuance of our policy
of principles. All attitudes in defense of the national interests will have
our support. If the Bolivian people and workers, the Bolivian farmers and
students must face difficulties in the future, if the advance of the
Bolivian revolution leads them to struggles, blockades, and sacrifices, we
say to you the representatives of the Bolivian people, workers, farmers and
the students that you may depend on Cuba's solidarity. [applause] And we
can assure you that Cuba's solidarity never fails. [applause] In the name
of our people, I convey this reply to the Bolivian people. [applause]

We cannot conclude without expressing our recognition and our admiration to
the national heroes of work present here. On this date, they received
[applause] the creditable award of national heroes of work. [shot pause]

There is something that was not said on the day of the farewell to the
column. Something on which not a word has been said but deserves to be
highlighted. Among the national heroes numbering 86 of 200,000 and 300,000
arrobas, there are 73 from the Centennial Youth Column. [applause]

We had said that it was the most productive force in Cuba, the Centennial
Youth Column. And the fact that it has produced 73 national heroes out of a
total of 86 so indicates. Now well, they are national heroes not only
because of the amount of arrobas they cut down. The [word indistinct] cut
more than 3,000 tons of sugar. The sugar that is produced from the sugar
cane they cut earned between 30,000 and 40,000 pesos in exchange.
[applause] Of course, that cane had to be planted, cultivated, transported
moved, ground--that is, it is the production of all who take part in the
process, but enough to say that with the cane cut by them those quantities
of sugar were produced. More than 300 tons, some 350 tons or more of sugar.
And yet, we said they were national heroes not only because of their
productive effort, their attitude toward work, but because of their
communist conscience towards work.

Many of our visitors will wonder how much those macheteros earn. They will
even ask if they are rich, these macheteros who cut so much cane. Well then
the column was organized the comrades of the youth and the party, according
to the Labor Ministry, decided to establish a special remuneration. That
is, a different kind of remuneration. We could call it a communist
remuneration of work. They received clothes, shoes, so [words indistinct]
their needs, they received a monthly amount according to the number of
children in the family.

Now, we want to say how much these nine cane cutters of 300,000 arrobas
made monthly, Torre Blanca, 95 pesos; Mique Ferrer, 95 pesos and aid for
eight relatives--Torre Blanca has two children; Monchita, 80 pesos and
family aid; Hervecia, 95 pesos, with three children; Guillermo Vasquez, 95
pesos, with five children; Omar (Frontra), 110 pesos, with four in the
family; Jose Alonso, 50 pesos, without children; Rafael Torres, 65 pesos,
with a family of four; Lene, 80 pesos, with three children.

They received according to the needs of each case. This is an extraordinary
example. These cases are similar to those of the 63 [as heard] national
heroes of the Centennial Youth Column, of the 86 persons receiving this
title. Besides, there are more than 300 who have cut over 100,000 tons.
This does not mean that the success of this method in this vanguard group,
among this kind of youths, should imply that the method may be used in a
general way. We would not be realistic if we thought so. We would be
idealists if we thought that we could now follow this path to communism and
be equally successful in a general way. No; we cannot mean that. But we do
believe that the matter should be emphasized because these youths in fact
received communist pay--each worked according to his ability and received
according to his needs. [applause]

That is the Communist formula, which is still to far off, which could
respond to the development of our productive forces and to development of
our revolutionary awareness. But we cannot fail to express short pause
forgetting all material goods, forgetting money, forgetting everything, an
because this is an example of what our youths will be in the future, of
what our Communist society will be [applause], we express our most sincere
congratulations, our deepest gratitude in the name of the people. We are
grateful that they have shown with facts that a future Communist society is
not out of reach. Our gratitude for having shown the people an example of
awareness, of work, and of the Communist man. [applause] Fatherland or
death, we will win. [applause]

[Castro speaks again after the announcer has closed the ceremony] I would
like another minute [applause] to correct an injustice. We want to read a
message deceived from the technical construction brigade which is working
in Peru building six polyclinics [applause] which have been donated by our
country to the Peruvian people because of the recent earthquake there,
which, as you know, claimed more than 50,000 lives. Those hospitals were
made by construction workers, and were transported on Cuban ships. We have
seen a picture of one of the hospitals already completed, and it is really
pretty. They are doing a job of solidarity in Peru, and they have bent
their message, which we want to read.

The message says: On the celebration of the 18th anniversary of the
glorious attack on the Moncada barracks, a date which marks the beginning
of the emancipation struggle for our fatherland, the components of the
Cuban Technical Construction Brigade, who are now complying with our
international spirit in the fraternal country of Peru, wish to express to
you, our party, our Revolutionary Government, and to all our people, on
this 26 July a message of greetings which expresses the confirmation of our
commitment to work without rest to fulfill the task of solidarity which our
people have committed to us: to build the hospitals which have been donated
by Cuba to the brother country of Peru. We completed the first hospital
today. Fatherland or death, we will win. [Signed] The Cuban Technical
Construction Brigade, Peru. [applause]