Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC


Havana Domestic Radio and Television Services in Spanish 0215 GMT 28 Sep 71

[Text by speech by Cuban Premier Maj Fidel Castro Ruz at Havana's Plaza de
la Revolucion on the occasion of the 11th anniversary of the founding of
the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDR)--live]

[Text] Distinguished guests, comrades of our party's Central Committee,
comrades of the CDRs: this year, for the past several days, we can sense
the enthusiastic and optimistic attitude in connection with the
commemoration of the 11th anniversary of the founding of the CDRs. It could
be said that this gigantic mass movement which was created by the
revolution has now attained its highest degree of enthusiasm. This can be
explained by the fact that during the past year the CDRs have had a most
fruitful and successful year.

First we must state that this movement which emerged 11 years ago began to
grow from the very start. It became larger in membership; it improved its
efficiency, its organization. It had kept growing from year to year. It can
be said that this movement has grown as if by leaps and bounds.

During 1962, or in 1961, [Castro corrects himself] there were 798,703 CDR
members. During 1962 they reached the first million in membership. During
1965 they reached the second million. During 1969 they reached the third
million. Now in 1971 they have reached a total of 3.5 million CDR members.
It might be believed that an organization growing that fast could lose if
effectiveness, however, just the opposite has occurred. Year after year,
the CDRs have attained more strength, better organization, and better

We could also say that during all these years its systems of relations with
other mass organizations and other institutions of the revolution has
gradually improved. Thus, this organization now has attained the
acknowledgement, the sympathy, and the affection of other mass
organizations and other revolutionary institutions for its splendid
enthusiasm and its outstanding spirit of cooperation in all tasks assigned
to it. The statistics show a growth in activity parallel to the growth of
the organization.

During 1968, when the activity of outstanding fathers for education began,
the movement had 21,800 members. by 1970 this figure had already climbed to
247,799, and in 1971 it totaled 265,851 members. Throughout the years there
has been a great effort in contacting and recruiting teachers for
educational tasks. In 1962 there were 6,444, and this year there are 10,000
for a total of 33,775 during the past years.

Another activity that is rapidly growing is the one connected with blood
donations. In 1962 there were 8,109 donations, and in 1965 the number of
10,019. In 1969 a total of 105,932 [applause] donations were attained.
During the current year there have been 124,019. [applause] These figures
permit us to make a moral and human evaluation of the tasks that the CDRs
are facing. Donating blood has thus attained great popularity in Cuba, and
we feel certain that if we had the requisite reception centers and the
necessary conditions throughout the island, donations would be far greater.
These donations not only have created an extensive blood bank, not only
have given us large quantities of blood, which were previous used for
commercial purposes, which were previously used to demand great quantities
of cash, which could have previously caused the death of many persons, not
only have they allowed us to have ample reserves to supply our needs, but
they have been used in dramatic situations such as the Peruvian earthquake
when we were able to send our blood immediately to that fraternal people.

During the other earthquake in the fraternal country of Chile, we were also
able to send our blood immediately to that fraternal people. [applause]
This means that as the people are educated, as habits of awareness are
formed, as habits of human solidarity are formed, as habits of generosity
are created, then the people become stronger and they are able to help in a
greater degree other peoples. But we must also say that this is one of the
most precious tasks, one of the most noble and most generous, that has been
spurred by the CDRs.

Another thing that has great human value is the activity connected with
cytological tests. The first year in which this drive began there were a
total of 4,162 tests. In the second year there were 108,461. There were
more than 200,000 in the third year and the figure which is being
maintained at the present time is some 200,000 tests a year. One can also
perfectly understand the human value of this campaign. How it helps to
bring peace of mind; how it helps to protect health; and how it helps to
fight at the right time some diseases which are still veritable scourges of

These figures speak very highly of the gains made in the public health
campaigns helped by the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution.

Another fact also related to human health are the health meetings. In 1962
there were 106,005 and in 1963 there were 263,000. In 1964, there were
454,000 and so on progressively until the figure of 750,218 was reached in
1968. At the present time there are 342,655. but in the past 10 years, more
than 4.5 millions persons took part and received the benefit of these
health meetings.

There was also growth each year in the salvage of raw materials, such as
bottles, in which a total of 8,930,673 bottles were collected in 1962;
33,620,513 were collected in 1967; and 68,186,774 were picked up in 1971.
[applause] And if we bring this figure up to date, we understand that this
figure now exceeds 70 million. This is an unquestionable growth in this

Comrade Martuerlos [national coordinator of the Committees for the Defense
of the Revolution] told us of some new activities which were able to be
resolved in a much easier way with the help of the committees. Last year we
had the example of the census and this year it was the establishment of the
system for the registration of the population and the identity card. This
help made it possible to carry this program out with a minimum number of
professional workers. There was the help given in implementing the
anti-loafing law, the help given in various services, the help given in
emergency situations, such as in the wake of the epidemic of African swine
fever, so that it was possible to face that problem resolutely, to carry
out the swine census in practically a matter of hours, and to control the
measures that were issued to cope with the epidemic.

We know how some foreign technicians who visited our country marveled at
the swiftness, the massive cooperation, and the effectiveness with which
the measures were applied, an achievement that could have only been
possible in a country having the conditions that Cuba has having the
support of a mass organization like the Committees for the Defense of

Other tasks the CDRs carried out was the census of vacant houses in the
city of Havana for the purpose of taking appropriate action. In other
words, there is no problem, no difficulty, no job that the CDRs cannot
handle. [applause]

I am referring to the jobs which have not been directly linked with the
essential objective that motivated the creation of this institution, which
was the defense of the revolution, the struggle against the enemy, the
struggle against the agents of imperialism, the struggle against the
saboteurs, the struggle against the counter- revolutionary elements, in
which glorious chapters have been written by this institution and will
continue to be written by it for whatever time its takes. [applause]

It has grown so strong, it is so big, that its new jobs go beyond their
previous frame of reference, and could we possibly say that the
possibilities of this mass organization have run out? Could we possibly say
that the CDRs have already given all they are potentially capable of
giving? [crowd shouts: no!] No! Life teaches us, shows us additional and
hitherto unsuspected possibilities. We have therefore more than enough
reason to feel gratified, to feel encouraged by the successes attained, to
feel optimistic about future jobs.

This year, turning to something else, was a year of trials for the CDRs. It
began in the capital of the republic. There was talk about beginning to
apply mass criteria toward the solution of arduous problems. There was talk
about the idea of beginning to organize additional communities [as heard]
for the solution of their [as heard] most pressing problems. In various
cities of the nation, the organization of districts was begun for the
purpose of assuming the responsibility for a number of jobs, and it was as
a matter of fact with a view toward training the CDRs to participate with
the rest of the organizations, and precisely in consideration of its
relations with other mass organizations, in the organization of the
community, they were assigned one task, namely, the task of the Latino
Americano stadium. Our country was selected as the site of the next world
baseball championship. Even though during the past years many stadiums were
built throughout the island, the old Latino Americano stadium did not look
as if it was adequately prepared for the type of event that was going to
take place.

In other years the problem of the Latino Americano stadium would have
conflicted with other problems, other constructions, other needs. In other
years the problem would have seen solved, or maybe it would not have been
solved, by mobilizing hundreds of construction workers. As you all know,
the construction workers are not in sufficient quantity for the many
projects currently underway. It was decided to ask for the cooperation of
the CDRs in order to solve that problem, and in this manner train them in
the solution of activities, or more complicated problems, such as those
related to construction work.

In the first place we asked the CDR comrades to take up the matter with the
masses and to obtain their opinion as to the repairs, enlargement, and
beautification of the old stadium. It was first discussed with the masses.
All activities began in connection with the cooperation needed. IN order to
carry out this task, 24 organizations participated. Beginning with the
draftsmen, who accomplished in a matter of days a very difficult task
solving engineering and architectural problems of that construction, down
to the units that were supposed to manufacture the elements and parts, such
as furniture, marble, and solve the many problems involved, the physical
presence of the CDRs, their enthusiasm, and their know-how were of great
help in the needed coordination.

The fact is, this stadium has not only required the participation of
hundreds of thousands of CDR members, millions of volunteer hours, but it
has also required meticulous planning, an outstanding coordination of all
factors which had to participate in one way or another.

It was happily solved by cooperation and coordination in all problems
demanded by such a construction, and resulted in what could be called a
miraculous piece of construction. It was attained without decreasing in any
way the rest of the construction work, without affecting other
constructions. It was attained in the same degrees that many other
construction tasks were being spurred. It is true that it was necessary to
have a group of qualified workers in order to supervise the masses, to
support them technically, and to utilize their skills in those specialists
that we could not find within the masses with sufficient experience to
solve the problems.

But we must say that the CDRs permeated all organizations that participated
in the task with their enthusiasm and their spirit, and spread their
extraordinary enthusiasm and spirit to the construction workers assigned
there. They were good workers, good laborers without doubt, but in this
task they excelled, they did better than at other times. In other words,
they were overcome by the enthusiasm of the mass. You must look at it not
only from the point of view of quantity of manhours, but from the moral
point of view and what the enthusiasm of the passes represented in terms of
the task; [applause] what the work spirit of the masses represented, the
example of the masses, the presence of women over 60 years of age working
there an contributing hundreds of volunteer hours, the presence of CDR
members of 70 years of age, and some even more, contributing hundreds of
volunteer hours.

This was a driving factor. It was a spirit-lifting factor of moral value.
It was a factor that existed in all workers in general and in the younger
workers, and they gave their best in this task. We know that some of the
visitors that have been here to carry out some of the activities in
connection with the upcoming world series were surprised and astonished by
what they saw, by the number of human beings who looked like ants and who
participated in the final touches of the stadium. There were only minor
details left such as electrical work, touch ups, minor details, but the
main work had been completed. It will be something that out country can be
proud of when the upcoming world series begins.

We are certain that the conditions have been improved to such an extent
that they will be better than the conditions of any other series held in
any other country. In connection with this, much as been said about the
possibility of whether the American team coming or not. In connection with
this, we must say that if they do not send the team it will be due to many
reasons. Among them--all of them of course of a political nature--there are
reasons such as trying to sabotage the series. But we must make it clear
that if they do not come, they will not spoil the fun. [applause] They will
not take anything away from the series. [applause] They will have no
excuses. Out country fulfills its obligations in connection with the
accommodations for the teams which come from many countries to participate
in the international context in the same manner that we demand for
ourselves the right and the accommodations in order to participate.

They will not be able to talk about hostility because our people conducted
themselves with splendid courtesy and hospitality toward the North American
athletes during the volleyball championship. They saw in them, not
representatives of the system of the imperialist government, but of the
people of the United States. They cannot therefore many any allegations
regarding the safety of the players or of hostility toward them Hence they
will be given courtesy, correct and respectable treatment, and something
more, hospitality. This is guaranteed and it is also a proven courtesy.

There are two reasons left: One an attempt to sabotage the series; two,
fear of being beaten--in the sports field. [applause] And quite possibly
both reasons. But because of this we should not let the brilliance of this
international meet hinge in any way whatsoever on whether the U.S. team
comes or not. [Castro chuckles] We have faced their teams in various meets
and we have beaten them. [applause] What we really would like, as far as
sports are concerned, is not that everything were centered on the
competition between Cuba and the United States, what we would like is that
some day many other Latin American nations will put U.S. sports teams in
third, [Castro raising his voice][ fourth, fifth, or sixth place!

There are Latin American sports teams that have been improving in quality
every year. To the same degree that the meets are enhanced or took on a
special character when Cuba and the United States played, we believe that
the fact that they do not show up with not detract, nor cheat anyone, nor
take away from the quality of such meets.

Many nations have already confirmed their attendance. Teams are even coming
from Europe. Teams will come from various Latin American nations and if the
U.S. team does not come because of cowardice or an attempt to sabotage the
series, then the ones who will certainly miss the series will not be us,
but them! [applause] It is they who will beat themselves beforehand, not
us. [applause] And it would really be a laughable matter to see how the
inventors of baseball, and at a time when this sport is spreading through
the world, do not even take part, when a world series of the game is taking
place in Cuba with the participation of Europe and Latin America. Really,
from the moral point of view [Castro chuckles] it would be downright
shameful for them to have come to such a sad and sorry state of affairs.
[applause] And they will not be able to deny that they peaselessly try to
mix their imperialist policy with sports. This explanation is given to
inform our people that the world series will be a very brilliant success
that the imperialists will not be able to sabotage. [applause] And that out
populace, along the length and breadth of the island, in their splendid
stadiums will be able to see the next world series games. And the hundreds
of thousands of CDR members who helped build the stadium will have a chance
to see the games with the pride of having built the stadium. [applause]

What does this success show, this accomplished task? This successfully
accomplished trial? That we should prepare to carry on; that we should
undertake new tasks; that we should continue to move ahead with a view
toward the participation that this organization will have in the
organization of districts. We should move ahead on this front of the
districts, slowly but on solid ground. We have a world of creative tasks
ahead of us.

We must now assume responsibility for new tasks. We now have to use the
frontline workers of construction who worked on the stadium in this regard.
And together with the CDRs, they can spur other important jobs. What jobs?
We are going to work on more than one job. In the first place, let us help
in a very important economic job.

Under construction by a brigade of industrial construction and assembly
workers, is a 60,000-kilowatt-thermoelectric powerplant in Tallapiedro. The
target date for the completion of this job is December 1972. Still, it is
very important to increase the electrical generating capacity in the
western region. The eastern region, the Camaguey region has a surplus in
electrical generating capacity at this time, and as the link up between
Nuevitas and Santiago de Cuba moves ahead, they will have enough electrical
generating capacity in the next few years, aside from their (?construction)

A thermoelectric powerplant has just been completed in Cienfuegos and it
can even transmit some power to Havana. But it does help the power
situation, notably in the central region.

In the western region, apart from delays in maintenance work and major
repairs that have been made in generating centers, there are power
shortages. Faced with larger power needs, that unit is going to be
constructed. Construction of a second unit will begin by the end of the
year, a unit of 60,00 kilowatts in Regla. During 1972 the construction of
another unit of 100,000 kilowatts will being in Mariel, and before 1975 a
second unit of 100,000 kilowatts will be completed in Mariel.

Apart from the efforts that the electric power companies will make, and
which they will have to make in order to alleviate the harm, the
inconveniences, and the problems, even in production, that power outages
are causing, we must step up the construction of new units. We are of the
opinion that the Havana CDRs have enough proof of the inconveniences
provoked by this situation, and the need for stepping up the solutions.

This brigades works its normal shift. Now, we must build that unit as if we
were engaged in a war. We must build that Tallapiedra unit by working day
and night. [applause] We must speed up the construction work and finish it
not by December 1972, but by July 1972, that is, have it completed by that
date. [applause] In the same manner, when the Havana communist brigade
which build the fertilizer plant in Cienfuegos begins construction work on
the other unit in Regla, we must also do that work day and night in the
construction of that second unit [applause] with the support of the CDRs of
the capital, but logically with the strength of the stadium brigade and the
support of the CDR members who worked there, the work that has to be done
to assemble the Tallapiedra unit would amount to very little.

We believe that in 10 to 15 days at the most, conditions will be ready to
being working day and night. There will be more than enough manpower. There
is another project that we believe could be used in burning the energy and
the enthusiasm of the CDRs. This one is the new hospital Centro Havana
which [applause] is being installed in the building that was going to be
assigned to the National Bank of Cuba in San Lazaro street across from
Maceo park. This is another construction of great social interest in which
the CDR members of Centro Havana could participate. We can begin dividing
up into sections. [applause] There is another task, the repair of potholes
in the streets of Havana. [applause] This is a very important problem that
affects the transportation service. It causes delays, breakdowns, and
damage to equipment. This is a mass task. In this manner we can work at the
block level, not on a regional level.

We must being dividing up into regions and blocks. There is still another
task. Please note that there are not all the tasks that must be worked on,
just part of them. [voices in the crowd are heard mentioning different
sections of Havana] I believe there is plenty to repair in Mariano with
respect to the streets and other things. A fifth task to which you can
contribute with part of your strength is the construction of the new zoo.
Also we will have two projects to do (?cheaply). They are important and
decisive. The thermoelectric plant is one, and the other is in connection
with public health, a magnificent hospital that can serve one whole region
and in certain specialities the whole city, even the whole nation.

Another project that affects us economically and socially, and which is
very important, is the repair of the streets, and, finally, we have a
project for recreation purposes. The plans are being made and the project
is being studied. We have made great advances in this regard. The land has
been selected. Now we want to have a zoo that deserves to be compared to
the stadium and other projects that are under construction.

If these projects are constructed with the participation of the masses and
with extra work, in reality this is the only way to do it, because
[applause] economically we [Castro leaves thought unfinished] The
construction workers have to be assigned to major industrial construction,
such as dams, irrigation systems, drainage, warehouses, secondary schools,
and many other tasks to which we cannot easily mobilize the masses in order
to do the work.

But I believe that the example of the Latino Americano stadium and some
other construction work demonstrates how the masses can attain all they
wish to attain if they are able to utilize their energies, if [applause]
they are able to realize their goals. They can construct the most beautiful
zoo that can be imagined. This is done with work, in other words, with
extra work. It will be a place where the people can go, the youngsters and
the children, who love these activities which are not only recreational but
that are and could be very educational. The Havana University students are
building a splendid botanical garden. There is no doubt that it will be an
additional recreational area but it will also be a great classroom, a place
which children and young persons can become familiarized with plants,
botany, and other sciences.

What we regret is that these ideas did not come up before. What we regret
is that these new approached now coming up did not show up before. But as
Marturelos said, no society could change until it became conscious of the
need for change and awareness of the need for change itself would not arise
until the conditions were present to make such a change possible. Many of
the things that are arising during the Cuban revolution, some of them
innovative, are basically the fruit of the struggle for life, of the
struggle against obstacles, of the struggle in the face of necessities. For
it is a struggle, as a matter of fact, that inspired intelligence.

It is a struggle that is the mother of the best solution. There can be no
solution with problems [as heard]. Many solutions may come up where there
are problems, and these solutions may be very good.

When we analyze our problems objectively, we realize how the entire history
of the revolution is a chain in which the people are getting experience,
getting initiative, are getting ability to cope with problems; and all this
stems from struggle. Have we perhaps reached the limit of the possibilities
for mobilizing the masses and mass- solutions? No, not hardly!

Has not another formidable, powerful, and gigantic movement to resolve the
most acute hosing problem and other social needs perhaps not arisen with
this movement in connection with the stadium and the participation of the
CDRs in the solution of the community's problems? [applause]

Another revolutionary solution, a mass-oriented solution, is arising out of
this movement. If the people of the streets was acute, the problem of
school construction is much more acute, as is the housing problem. But
before there was no solution in sight and today there is.

Where did we get the manpower? Where did we get the construction workers to
build the tens of thousands of houses the country needs? Were we going to
get them from the thermoelectric powerplants? Were we going to get them
from the industrial construction sector, from the warehouse construction
projects, from the dam works, from other projects? What is more,
springboard to other occupations. Where were we going to get the manpower,
the necessary hands, even if we managed to get the materials to do the job?
There was not solution to the problem and a mass-oriented solution
arose--the microbridges of industrial workers for the construction of
housing! [applause]

This is the movement that has now spread over the entire country. It now
consists of 218 microbrigades in the city of Havana. Therefore 218
buildings are simultaneously under construction or about to be built. By
the end of October there will be nearly 300 of them, at the same time.
Nearly 5,000 industrial workers are in this movement and, as a matter of
fact, they are represented here in this great throng wearing their white
construction hardhats. [applause]

It is not a degrading job to be a construction worker as far as they are
concerned. It is an honorable job and what spirit they are showing; what
enthusiasm, some of the microbrigades had finished their first buildings.
They are beginning on the construction of a second one. How many hours are
they working? 10, 12, 12 and sometimes, 14 hours. [applause]

Ah! What a great discovery! The buildings, the housing problems is being
resolved with work. And I say discovery because so many persons think that
houses come like magic from a hat or from a piece of paper.

There are so many people who, under the pressure of their urgent needs,
have mystical imaginations regarding the origin of material goods, and that
houses are not created-- standing in line before a little housing control
office. Not only must the houses be created, they must also be distributed
in another way. Neither is a house created simply by asking for its on the

This year, there have been some available houses, not because of the
limited construction but because of elements desiring to abandoned the
country. Many of these houses were later the basis for disorders, I mean,
irregularities, discontent, problems of all sorts. Sometimes this was
because someone simply moved into them because they were empty; other
times, because their distribution was incorrect [applause] and sometime
because there are always scores of discontented persons who believe that
they have a greater right. [applause] The method needs to be changed
completely, but since the list of works--and they well deserve to be called
worms--the list of those requesting permission to depart from the country.
[leased thought incomplete]

The period was opened a few years ago and a deadline was set--which was
extended several times so that all interested parties could put their names
down, which they did--and the list is becoming exhausted now with only a
few more [to leave], so there should be no more empty houses in the near
future which could become the fruit of discord. We say this, taking
advantage of the opportunity, because the imperialists have been carrying
out a lying, hypocritical campaign saying that Cuba has unilaterally
suspended the airlift.

No, imperialist gentlemen, the truth is that the list has been exhausted.
[applause] The list is exhausted because some of them have left for other
placed such as Spain, and some of them were refused permits by the
imperialists. Who knows why? Now they want us to give permission to every
person which they have suggested, that we hasten to give these a permit to
they may leave. The revolution has given all opportunities. It set a
deadline and extended it many times so that all those who wanted to leave
could take advantage of this and above all because the imperialists in 1962
had suspended the airlift unilaterally, leaving many families divided. This
took place during the time of the famous Patria Potestas story and all
those lies which they spread. And there were sufficient naive persons and
cretins who believed the lies of the imperialists. And some went ahead and
sent their children. They ended the airlift after that. And when the
revolution resumed its was precisely to normalize the situation. And let it
be remembered that we were the ones to open the door, not they. It was
Camariota. It was the Camariota solution which forced them to open the
door. Why? Because they they closed it they began promoting illegal
departures from Cuba--in little boats, rafts, by all means. The prohibited
that which was legal to promote that which was illegal, just for the sake
of propaganda.

We then gave permission and their situation became chaotic. Imagine all
those undisciplined, anarchic worms, without a homeland, without
principles, without anything. Everybody took to his boat and chaos was
immediately created. The imperialist had no choice but to legally open the
door. The airlift was resumed in order to united the families. The argument
of divided families, of little children, of the others, or other stories
cannot be used now because all opportunity was given for all families to be

Or course, they realize that the list is becoming exhausted. They want to
make cheap propaganda and to gain stimulate some illegal departures as soon
as the list is complete. Well, that is their business; let them do as they
please, because all their intentions became a bommerang against them. Leave
them alone. It will be their responsibility if they begin the game of
violating the Cuban emigration law. It will be their responsibility if they
resume the game of promoting illegal departures and spreading melodramatic
stories to deceive the world. Leave them alone.

Just to remember something they could remember Camariota. They could
remember that their little planes come here often, and such things. We
will, of course, have the right to take the necessary countermeasures if,
at the exhaustion of the list, they try to promote violations of the Cuban
emigration law. Let them not forget that we have not yet given a model to
any of the skyjackers who came to Cuba.

We have never promoted such illegal acts; but let them remember that all
their skirmishes and inventions have worked against them, and that sooner
or later they have always lost the battle. Let them remember that in the
measure that they promote illegal acts here we are going to promote illegal
acts there. [applause and cheers]

Let us continue to talk about housing. The topic of the worms came up in
connection with housing. it is an unimportant topic. The worms do not
deserve to be considered an important part of a ceremony like today's
[applause] We were saying that there are revolutionary and massive
solutions, collective solutions, that is the factories, which are being
organized by microbrigades. These factories will control the houses that
the industrial workers build. The workers of each factory will distribute
the houses. [applause]

It is deplorable that 10 microbrigades were organized incorrectly--10
construction microbrigades have given a bad example. The brigades were made
up of those who were going to use the houses. When we found this out they
had already committed 10 buildings in this way. Of course the effects were
immediately seen. The factory group had not interest in those houses.
Individual interest was separated from group interest. They were neither
working for the factory nor for the other workers. This was not a good
solution because some workers are indispensable in the production centers.
They cannot be substituted. How can they build their homes in such a
manner? The correct way is that the factory appoint the workers. The houses
are built for the factory group, which distributes the homes. This is not a
bureaucratic, office, or administrative method. This is done in meetings
and is absolutely democratic. The merits of the worker--not only his
need--is taken into account. [applause]

There is something else; many times he who asks for more, is the one who
works less. Many times, he who demands the most is the one who works the
least. It is logical because he who does not work does not know the effort
is. He does not know the value of things, how problems are solved. He has a
bourgeois mentality. I want everything and I want it now. It will not work.
I will not give anything. This line of thought if not compatible. It it not
proper for a revolutionary people. What is proper for a revolutionary
people is to know the problems, tackle the problems, solve the problems,
confront the problems, and fight for the solution of problems. [applause]

We must combat that philosophy of demands without work. We also must combat
that mystic mentality of those who believe that mental things come from
heaven. That is bad; it is a sad heritage from capitalism which alienated
man from his material things, from the material things which he produced.
Man lived by himself; he could be a vagrant and a thief. He got everything
he wanted. He could have been a privileged person; he could have been an
exploiter. He had no relationship with the good things in life. He was only
interested in what he was given, what he was paid. What he destroyed did
not matter much to him, and if a worker helped in the construction of the
movie (?house) or a building, he could leave for home and could not care
less what happened to it. If the building collapsed, it was that much
better-a better chance to get more work building another one. That is, man
lived alienated from material things which he created. He was persistent in
begging, politics was linked with all this--give here, take there. They
then had the mystic mentality that good things had only to be requested, to
be demanded. We must create things so they exist; we must make them.

That is why we spoke about merit. Society must have a maximum of
consideration for those who do their best for society. [applause] Thus the
new system of the masses in the distribution of insufficient items. It is a
system which we will follow. It is highly exemplary and morale building.

Now then, houses will sprout and will sprout by tens of thousands from the
hands of the workers, workers who make an extra effort. Tens of thousand
will mushroom through overtime work. It must be said that the workers of
industrial microbrigades are establishing guidelines and they are making
great efforts, 10, 12 and sometimes 14 hours, and truly doing a day's work.
One must see, one must see how they are making use of a day's work. They
are working 10, 12 hours with overtime, yes, because if it is not with
overtime how will we find a solution?

Industrial countries have 5 times, 10 times more productivity than
underdeveloped countries. How can be overcome underdevelopment with low
productivity without making good use of a day's work, if we do not make
special efforts? Now then the important thing was to involve the masses in
the solution of their problems through efforts which they could understand
perfectly. Any how rapidly the workers understood the solution of the
housing formula through this means, through the means of collectivity,
through factories, through the means of overtime.

It is supposed that industry and the collectivity behind it can support it
with extra hours, on Sundays. It must be said, however, that their
productivity and the phases in Which they find themselves, have not yet
given scope to the possibility of massive mobilizations. It has not been
easy, on the other hand, to organize such a high number of microbrigades.
Why? Because projects are made with materials; they are made with sand,
with rocks, with cement, steal bars, they use lumber and different
materials, and such a cast construction program would necessarily put
tension on the building materials industry. But as tension surged, formulas
were searched for, and new formulas, and more formulas. Of course, the
building materials industry will remain under stress from now on, who knows
until when, due to the imposing growth of this movement.

But factories are being completed, new lines of cement production are being
started. In some work centers, two shifts are used, and new solutions are
emerging. Therefore, even if there is tension it is believed that the
material means to maintain this movement will be produced.

Now then, are you going to solve only the problem of housing in the new
areas being constructed by the workers? No. The problems of child care
centers, and the corresponding problems of primary schools are already
being raised. The workers of Alamar are already working on a water
treatment plant to supply the area where they will live, because there were
three dams and the treatment plant was lacking; it had to be build and they
are constructing it. They are going to work on the sewer systems, on the
water systems, on the other social projects which, apart from schools and
child care centers involve polyclinics, commercial establishments,
recreation centers, and including--it is possible--the establishment of
some light industries in those new areas where the families of workers can
work near their homes, which will also be built by the industrial workers.

This movement, therefore, [applause] is not limited to solving the housing
problem, but also many social problems that would have no solution except
through this means--child care centers, schools, polyclinics, commercial
establishments, I repeat, recreation, centers, water, sewers, and including
some industrial projects. When the microbrigade movement reaches 8,000 or
10,000 workers in Havana, we plan to do something else: To organize four
construction brigades from basic secondary schools with workers from the
microbrigades. For what? So that they can participate in the construction
of installations where their children will study basic secondary studies.

We have tried to get the microbrigades to raise their productivity. Each
time a new technique can be introduced, it is introduced. Each time it can
be formulated, it will be introduced. As we increase their productivity in
housing construction, we will free a force for the other social problems.
Now then, what does this mean? That the country had found the solution not
only for the housing problem, but also for the problem of schools, of child
care centers, and the other social installations.

What does this mean? When the Meneses school was inaugurated, built by
construction workers, we were saying that 1.7 million primary school
students had been enrolled in the country; that under the most conservative
calculations, if we wanted someday to have primary schools with all the
teaching and sports facilities adequate for the sort of education we want
to provide, no less than 2,500 schools--as the Meneses one--had to be

Regarding secondary schools, new brigades are being organized. There will
be no less than 40 by the end of the year. These schools are generally
constructed by professional workers. Except in certain cases in which when
the microbrigade movement is very strong, it will be possible to obtain a
contribution from forces within the professional workers' movement.

It can be said that in general the construction of secondary schools is
assured through the brigades of professional workers. How will we build the
primary schools? How can we build them? It is perfectly understood that
with this movement--which by the second semester of the year 1972 will have
about 1,000 microbrigades with some 30,000 workers attacking the housing
problem--when we want to push primary schools, starting precisely with
workers' districts where their children will go to schools, by assigning a
primary school to each microbrigade we will build 1,000 primary schools in
a year, 1,000. This is to say that through this means the assurance also
emerges that in the future there will be no difficulties in the
construction of primary schools, which is one of the great problems we have
due to the great necessity for such installations. And this is without
counting the community strength--in other words, not at factory level--but
at the level of a community working on these problems.

Next year, in all sugar mills and in sugar fields next to the mills, we
will begin the work of constructing housing. Schools will be build in all
those new towns and in those areas where the workers live. You can see the
force of the masses. If we talk about 1,000 schools, this can daunt anyone,
for where do we get the manpower? How can we solve the problem? When we
have 1,000 worker microbrigades, a mass movement, the words 1,000 schools
do not frighten anyone.

Of course, [applause] there are people who become frightened. They are the
people working in the quarries, the stone and sand crushing plants, the
construction materials industry, and so forth. In short, we have arrived at
the conclusion that this mass movement is so strong that it must move
quickly and make a vigorous effort such as is now being made in the
construction materials industry.

Another revolutionary formula which has come up, revolutionary and of the
masses, has arisen concerning the basic secondary schools students in the
countryside where studies and labor are being combined. Somewhere in here,
with big posters, there are students from Ceiba 1. I do not know if those
students from Ceiba 2 are here. It seems that those from Ceiba 2 did not
get a bus. Ah, they also came, so we have those from Ceiba 2 here--those
who do not have a flag or posters; but they have morale. That movement also
has extraordinary perspectives. We were explaining during the opening of
the Guane school that we hope to build, in the next 10 year--from now up to
1980--1,000 secondary schools and that the country, improving the quality
of its primary education, can in 1980 have around 500,000 youths in
secondary schools of that type. [applause]

We must say that that is a realistic projection for this country. It means
the systematic incorporation into productive activities of 500,000 youths.
But it means something even more important: the combination of studies and
work, and that is the true education. Why has capitalistic society brought
about an alienation between man and material things? Why has there been
that mystic attitude concerning material things? Why that mentality of one
who demands but does not help? Simply because capitalist society has not
educated people to work. It has educated a minority for labor exploitation,
not for work. The majority of the workers' children could not go to school
and if they attended primary school, it was very difficult to attend
secondary school and practically impossible to attend the university.

Capitalist society could not produce an educational theory with regard to
work; an education for life, an education for labor. Capitalist society
idealized everything, created that mystic mentality, that hope to live from
someone else's labor, that alienation between man and material things.
Capitalist society also tricked the youth. It did not prepare them for
life. To educate is to prepare for life; to understand man's essential
needs, so that life always means something for man, so that life itself is
a continual motivation for effort, for struggle and enthusiasm.

Many of the youth so educated have lived in continual frustration and
deception. What is a man educated for life? Who can we single out as an
example? A man who perhaps no one taught, who perhaps someone favorably
influences, or perhaps has some special attributes has been observed here
tonight when we were delivering the identification cards of the
distinguished CDR people. We saw him Dioscorides del Pino [applause] and we
understood him when he told us: I am 83 years old; I have worked over 400
voluntary hours repairing the Camaguey stadium. [applause] But he said
something that really touched us. He recalled a phrase of a speech in which
he said that we had to be capable of showing, or better, that we had to
show that we were capable of working more as a free men than as slaves.

He wants to show in spontaneous and free manner that he could do that when
he was 83 years old. And for whom does he work with such ardor and
enthusiasm? For the people, for the new generations. The physical effort at
that age is commendable, as is the motivation, the state of mind, that
extraordinary enthusiasm. He is really an educated and self-educated man
for life. [applause] He is not a beaten man; there is no shadow of
selfishness; everything is generosity. He finds an extraordinary
encouragement in doing this as a self-denying and heroic worker.

It is thus, with the idea of educating for life that we want to form our
schools. We even want participation in productive activities to begin even
earlier. This should be in small activities within the reach of the primary
school students. This is why we are developing the concept of having the
primary schools in the fields. In other words, the rural schools will have
their gardens.

In the city schools, a similar concept will have to be developed. This will
be on the basis of vocational training, with vocational shops. Thus from an
early age--in the primary school--man will be taught to produce material
goods. They will be taught that these goods must be created with man's

We consider such training for life and work as absolutely essential in
revolutionary teaching. We view it as a concept that is inseparable from
revolutionary teaching--for the habit of work to be something natural,

The capitalist society did not teach, nor could it teach that. Such a
possibility emanates entirely from the revolutionary society, from the
socialist system. We should great our efforts thusly. Would the existence
of loafers and parasites be justified in the future? Could a child who from
his early years is taught to produce material goods with his hands become a
loafer and a parasite?

Could he develop a mystical mentality or, perhaps, could this alienation of
man and the goods he creates continue? We will face none of the many
problems we face today in the future if we apply this principle.

Nonetheless, there is something very important among all these things. We
observed this at the stadium a few days ago. This was a new dimension of
human satisfactions, a new dimension of recreation, a new way of evaluating

In the past when a spectator sat in the stadium, he arrived there feeling
no relation with it; other men in other times built it. The spectator feels
no special love for it--no relation between the work other men performed
and the benefit he is deriving from it.

But henceforth, each and every one of the hundreds of thousands of persons
will enjoy a new pleasure, feel a new satisfactory when he sits in that
stadium: remember the clump of grass he planted, the brick he laid, the
wall he painted, and the pillar he built or mounted.

That will be a new satisfaction, which explains man's rediscovering his
worth. And the same thing will apply to the hospital that men will help to
build, and the thermoelectric plant. For man is going to build and teach
the masses. He will teach the masses.

One way or the other the men will learn what an electrical system is. One
way or another they will learn the cost and effort entailed in building a
power plant. They will learn its value, how much human energy must be
invested in it.

Now the, whenever an electricity saving drive is conducted, this is good.
It teaches the masses, but nothing will teach them more than their own
participation in resolving problems, in grasping the problems.

We also believe that information should be supplied as a project
progresses--the number of such power plants in the country, a plant's
output capacity, the linking of the various transmission systems, the
problems involved, present output capacity and future output capacity
needs, and what is being done in that regard.

There is no better way to teach the masses than for them to take part in
resolving their problems. By the same token, we have seen a new building
built by a given number of workers at a given time. Later families moved in
who had not even seen the houses built.

They moved in, but how did they care for it? What happened in some of those
housing complexes? How much destruction occurred, frequently, doors, walls,
and installations were damaged. We, nevertheless, feel sure that no houses
will be better cared for anywhere in the world than those which the
industrial workers are building for their families. [applause]

For every worker, everyone of his relatives, everyone of his children will
see the fruit of his own work. They will have special love, respect, and
care for such material goods.

Furthermore, when the shrubbery is attended by a primary school child, no
one will have to scold him for pulling up a small tree. For that child will
have been taught to care for trees by having been shown how to plant a tree
and to care for plants.

It is in that way that we expect a new awareness to be developed, an
awareness that will come as a by product. And who knows, this may be the
main product of this new mass movement, the movement arising in the
factories, in the CDRS; in communities, in schools, and everywhere.

We believe these are the revolution's new discoveries. The problems we
have, like those any society has, are many; and they have accumulated over
a long period, and some are difficult (?to solve).

When we mentioned the chuck holes in the streets and other tasks for the
CDRS, we meant also that there were other problems which we would have to
table some day, for we cannot do so now.

Let up point to the complex problems of repairing Havana's water system. It
is a complex problem. It is the problem or supplying water of Havana. It is
a city in a province that does not have even a medium-sized river.
Frequently there are underground streams; that is, there are reserves that
ran out to sea and they cannot be tapped on a large scale.

To realize what those problems are, to work to resolve them, we must
develop an awareness of them. That fact is that it is estimated that 90
million cubic meters of water leak out annually from Havana's water system.

Some of the water lines data back to colonial times, some are 100 years

This is a serious undertaking. It requires studies, meticulously drafted
projects, materials, water mains, and industrial support for all factors
causing a loss of water. However, this will be a task which we much
undertake with the masses sometime.

Of course new sources of water are being studied. New dams are being built.
Some day we also will have to start the project--once we have the studies
and the means--to resolve Havana's road network.

There are other recent problems, such as the transportation problem. There
has been some delays in obtaining parts, but these are arriving. A great
number of buses await repairs, and school registration had greatly
increased, to name some of the problems.

The transportation problem is not limited to Havana, unfortunately. There
are many problems in Santiago, and in almost all the cities of Oriente
Province. We were also to bolster the Oriente Province transportation,
however. We could not retain here the buses we sent to Oriente.

There is a shortage of buses in Havana. Any Camaguey, Santa Clara,
Mantanzas, and Pinar del Rio have not received one bus lately. Some of
their buses are from the capitalistic era. They face big problems--a
shortage of spare parts.

Our country has been unable to substantially meet the transportation needs
which have multiplied so much. We are struggling. We have established a bus
assembly factory. It produces school buses, buses for transporting factory
workers, but we still are not making interurban buses.

The country was able to obtain buses to fully provide interprovincial
transportation. Some 150 very modern buses are being put into operation. We
are providing urban transportation with microbuses. However, we have been
unable, we lack the means, to fully satisfy urban transit needs.

We therefore will have to make a special effort--with the help of workers
and everyone-- to resolve the transit problem in Havana. We will have to
make the most efficient use of the vehicles at hand. Even so, when we have
a given number of buses available, we think that Camaguey, Santa Clara,
Matanzas, and Pinar del Rio--the capitals of these provinces--should be
given priority. For, as I said, they have not received a single new bus
during recent years, though they face a difficult situation.

We should struggle and study the means to build our bus pool. In the
meantime we should improve bus transportation to the factories and other
areas with the buses we are building. The Line 20 factor will build about
800 buses.

Many of these buses are being distributed. Some are four-wheel drive for
the rural areas, and others are two-wheel drive--those for the cities, for
transportation to the interior cities, and secondary schools. Remember that
every school that is built gets a bus. Though each school has 500 students,
all we can allow it is one bus.

We must struggle against these hardships, become aware of the, know then in
detail, and see what we can do immediately to resolve these situations.
Above all, we must gird ourselves to struggle.

I have touched on some solutions that are arising in regard to housing,
education, and the future solutions to out electric power problem. Yet
many, many other problems remain to be solved. What we must do is know how
to decisively cope with these problems one by one, following an order of
priorities, depending on their importance.

We could say now: Let us undertake a financing plan to settle out water
system problem. But where are the materials? We are building hundreds of
dairies. Just in this province 75 brigades are being organized. Many
already are working in the building of dairies.

But dairies also pose a water problem. The effort required is tremendous
and arduous. Thus we must be selective, we must invest resources in the
most vital points that will resolve the most pressing problems, and take up
the others successively.

We must not forget that we are not a rich country, that we are still, and
for some time will remain, a poor country. We must not forget that wealth
is produced only by work and everyone's help.

We must not forget what we said tonight about the genuinely revolutionary
concept: "Before demanding something of the country, of revolution, let us
ask ourselves what we are going for the country, for the revolution." We
each should demand more of ourselves than we demand of others.

That is the only revolutionary thought and concept. We face the facts. You
of the CDRS showed this at the Latino Americano stadium, accomplishing this
extraordinary job in just 9 months. You build an imposing edifice that will
be the price of our people.

The gains must be the CDRs are the activities mentioned tonight: blood
donations, psychological examinations, hygiene work panels, and the
collection of raw materials.

Any country would be proud of this long list of feats. How many countries
can declare that all of their children are immune from poliomyelitis? How
many countries with a small population like ours can say they conducted
almost 1 million psychological examinations? How many countries, with as
small a population as ours can claim having obtained more than 100,000
blood donations?

We are just mentioning a few things. For great gains similarly have been
made in health, education, work, and revolutionary awareness.

We tell the CDRs that our people can feel proud of your accomplishments,
your gains, and we can tell the CDRs that this movement has not in the
least exhausted its possibilities, that it had before it an extraordinary
potential for developing.

And we can say that we expect new victories, new successes, in resolving
the many talks lying ahead. Moreover, as we stated on 26 July, in the face
of difficulties, a people should not lament nor shed tears, but demonstrate
their combative, working, and struggling spirit.

In the face of difficulties, fight. This has been taught us by the
revolution. [applause] This is what the revolution has taught us: That thee
is no difficulty, obstacle, nor problem that cannot be overcome and
resolved by the tenacity and will of the people, the tenacity, courage, and
will of the masses. [applause]

Moreover, we feel certain that if this has been a great year for the CDR,
if the air of festivity, joy, and optimism has been extraordinary, we are
certain that next year we shall gather here again, on the 12th anniversary,
with an even greater air of enthusiasm and optimism that this year.

For the revolution [interruption by applause] last year decided to raise
the movement of the masses, the movement of the workers, the movement of
the women, the movement of the peasants, the movement of students, and the
movement of the CDRs in marching forward at full capacity and power.

And we see the fruits of their efforts before us. We have these fruits in
the stadium, in the successes gained for this year by the CDRs.