Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC

-DATE-
19711116
-YEAR-
1971
-DOCUMENT_TYPE-
SPEECH
-AUTHOR-
F. CASTRO
-HEADLINE-
RALLY SCHEDULED
-PLACE-
IQUIQUE
-SOURCE-
SANTIAGO CHILE RADIO
-REPORT_NBR-
FBIS
-REPORT_DATE-
19711117
-TEXT-
REPORTAGE CONTINUES ON CASTRO'S ACTIVITIES

Speech in Iquique

Santiago Chile Radio Corporation in Spanish 2358 GMT 16 Nov 71 C

[Speech by Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro to the people of Iquique,
presumably at a rally scheduled for 1500 GMT on 16 November--Recorded]

[Text] [In progress] a maritime province, experience with the merchant
marine, and experience with fishing. Perhaps some people think this is
easy. Actually the far-ranging modern ships have complicated machinery.

They require trained personnel--(?pilots), captains, mechanics, and
engineers. With their modern electronic equipment, the fishing boats also
need trained personnel. Because of this, one of the first tasks was to set
up schools and technological institutes where thousands of young men
studied merchant marine [sciences] and fishing. At the outset our fishermen
were what you call fishing craftsmen.

The small boats would put out at dawn, at the end of the day, or they would
put out at night, returning at dawn. We were told that there were between
10,000 and 15,000 fishing craftsmen in Chile. At first we encountered some
problems in our country. The old fishermen believed that the big ships
somehow would hurt the interests of the fishing craftsmen as sea workers.
In practice this turned out just the opposite.

The development of the big fishing fleet gave many of these fishermen the
opportunity to work under better conditions, much more comfortably, much
safer, with much more security, and with many more facilities.

Thus many fishermen later turned to work in the fishing fleets, but, as
some of them did not, many of the sons of the fishing families began
working in the fishing fleets. At the end of 12 years we frequently
encounter the families of fishermen who say: My son is chief machinist in
this or that ship. How many, many youths are sons of the Cuban fishermen
who today ply the waters of the Atlantic, the north and south seas--the
seas of Africa, America, and even the waters of the Pacific.

In a matter of a few years young men who are barely 26 or 27 years of age
are trained masters of vessels, navigators, captains, who ply the seas of
the world. Many who are under 30 years sail to Europe and Asia,
transporting our sugar to different places and bringing back to Cuba the
merchandise we import.

We have tried to mold our sea workers, our fishermen, and our merchant
seamen with a deep revolutionary spirit, a deep internationalist spirit. A
worker is prepared to give his all for his cause and his fatherland, and
capable of lending a hand to any brother country that needs it. At times
some tragedies have occurred--like the earthquake or such--and we are
always certain that our sailors, our sea workers, under any circumstance,
at any time day or night, when it is necessary to tell them that some aid,
some help must be sent, will immediately, and with an extraordinary spirit,
attempt to do so.

We strive to imbue our sailors with a spirit of discipline, respect,
morality, and principle. We are happy to say that our merchant marine
crewmen are viewed respectfully by the authorities in any part of the
world--a result of the training they have received. When we learn that they
are going to work alongside the Chilean sailors and people, in a fishing
vessel, we are confident that the Cubans sent here will do their utmost
side by side with the Chileans, and they will know how to win their respect
and esteem by virtue of their behavior and actions. [applause]

Everyone has faith in those men. They are not the sons of the rich, they
are not the sons of millionaires. They are sons of humble families of the
people, those men who bear the responsibility of performing these tasks.
Many are sons of fishing families. This make us perfectly sure that Chile's
sea workers have splendid prospects to develop your fishing production and
fishing fleets.

We think the Chileans have splendid prospects for bettering their nutrition
by developing the fishing industry and the fishing fleets. Someone informed
us that even now consumption is 15.6 percent, better said 15.6 kilograms
per capita. Yet some countries in Europe consume 40, and even 50 kilograms
of fish per capita.

One of the most complete, more easily digested, and most useful to human
beings are the foods from the sea. Frequently health, the extension of
life, hinges on a balanced diet. When one works for the people, and this is
an essential facet of the revolution, one essential thing is what can be
done to improve the people's living conditions so that the nutrition of the
children, the workers, the mothers, and the aged can be bettered.

We live in a world facing great nutrition problems. It is believed that
two-thirds of humanity suffers malnutrition. When nature has endowed a
country such fish-rich seas, as it has Chile, it is a blessing. I explain
this because you are in a position to draw everything from (?the sea).

The economy of this community of Iquique has, at other times, depended on
something else--nitrate, when more than 2 million tons were shipped through
here. Then there was the phase when sardines were plentiful. Then fleets
were developed, important factories were built. Natural phenomena arose,
however--the sardines vanish at a certain time. We remember that years ago
there was much talk about the sardines, the fishing for them, and the
production of fish meal. Later news reached Cuba that the sardines had
vanished, that they had been lost in these waters.

Chatting with port workers, talking to them about fishing in our country,
they showed an interest in sugarcane. We explained some of our problems.

We told them: Look at the advantages you have. You have great mining
resources. It never rains in those mines, the pace of extracting ore is
never interrupted by rain. No natural condition ever halts the production
of nitrate.

We noted that in our country, farming and sugarcane, the main factor of our
economy, hinges a lot on the climate. In dry years, we explained, the
consequences are serious. In such years production could drop 30 or 40
percent. As an example we are facing the same thing you did with the
sardines--in a bad sardine year, fishmeal production falls off. We added:
Just imagine, what if your economy depended on sardines?

Fortunately for you, we said, the economy depends on copper, on nitrate,
and only partly on the production of fishmeal, though that industry has
developed. Yet the possibilities of the sea have not been exhausted, not in
the slightest. Above all this applies to production for human consumption.
Judging from recent reports Chile has tremendous maritime resources for
expanding production of fishmeal for human consumption. According to what
we learned from the minister of lands--whom it is said will be named
maritime minister, because in Chile the minister of lands takes charge of
the sea--there are plans to establish fish-distribution centers, to create
cold storage chambers for distributing fish, and to develop fishing.

We believe that for the community of Iquique this will be highly useful and
important. It seems to us that if the fishing industry is developed, the
shipyards also could work at peak capacity. We believe that when production
of fish for human consumption is increased, the byproduct can be used to
produce fishmeal, in addition to that made from sardines--counting the good
years with the bad.

At the present time there are big boats fishing on a large scale. The fish
is processed at sea and the fishmeal is made there also.

Our country does not lie in the big fishing areas. Frequently our ships
sail 4,000 and even 13,000 kilometers. Yet we bring in the fish in
refrigerated ships. You do not realize what a privilege it is to have a
fishing area only a few hundred of kilometers away--what this could mean to
you.

We were also at the ports and talked to the workers. We went to the nitrate
loading wharf, and visited the very modern battery plant. We said:
"Assuredly we could be the Iquiqueans' customers for batteries. That is a
different product, but many batteries are turned out. You could turn out
batteries."

They answered: "No, our factory can turn out 2 million batteries monthly,
but we need 4 million. Perhaps we can turn out 3 million." In any case, we
were thinking of being your customers for flashlights, radios, and
batteries, but we have been left entirely without that supply. [applause]

Nevertheless, we can appreciate such a plant, considering the millions in
foreign exchange that the country is spending for batteries. True enough
one must import a number of products to make batteries. But compared with
what it costs to import them, Chile will possibly save at least $2 million
annually, in addition to providing work for more than 100 persons--among
them many women in the different shifts.

In other words, jobs rise, imports are saved, and the country's needs are
met. That type of factory is an example of development. Possibly much of
the raw material being brought in can also be produced here.

Another example is the canning plant. Each can produced there requires an
outlay of almost 1 escudo in sheet metal, so, when that plant begins to
triple its production, you will have to spend three times as much for sheet
metal. However, Chile has a steel mill, a steel plant--at Huachipato. Of
course Chile still does not produce a can as pretty as the imported can.
This can does not come printed. The can imported from the United States is
prettier--their industry is more developed, the printing is very pretty.

The Chilean can is not printed so prettily, but is is labeled [words
indistinct] to save. Then too many of the cans have a paper label.
All-in-all, if the can and the paper is Chilean, we must remember
prettiness is not always the thing. What we tell our workers is to turn out
a quality product and to present it as prettily as possible, always--not to
neglect the presentation, the forms.

Unfortunately, the fact is that highly developed countries have great
technology. They produce an article that is out of our reach to produce. In
this regard I am going to mention an example, if you develop your fishing
fleet you will net much more fish, which is good. But if, at the same time,
you fail to develop your steel industry, the more fish you have the more
foreign exchange you will spend for sheet steel.

The good thing is for a country to use its iron, its coal, its blast
furnaces, and its workers, to produce sheet steel, to produce its fish with
its ship and workers.

If Chilean shipyards can build the ships with Chilean steel, and with
Chilean workers, it is much better. [words indistinct] The sad thing about
our countries is that while we had economic resources, they did not allow
us to develop--they obstructed our development.

In our country, for instance, why did industry not develop? Ah, because
foreign merchandise was given preference. Because U.S. merchandise was
exempt from taxes. how could a national industry arise, still under
capitalism? Still under capitalism, I am not saying socialism. How could a
national industry rise, if the products which came from abroad, came with a
better presentation, if they were sold cheaper?

In this way, our nations did not develop industry and became accustomed to
importing everything. In this way, our countries remained backward. When
the time of the peoples arrives, when the hour of revolution arrives, of
justice, of the recovery of national resources, of working not for the
interests of powerful foreign companies, but of working for the people, of
working for the good of the people [applause]--because what determined the
setting up of another industry--ah, because a powerful enterprise said it
suits me to have it--they were not thinking about the people, they were
thinking about their business.

Often, often the only thing they left behind were the wages, while big
profits went abroad. They brought in $1 and for $1 which they brought in,
they took out dollars all of their lives. This money came from the sweat of
the workers. [applause] When the hour of the peoples arrives we find
limitations [words indistinct] we need hardware. We do not have it. We need
ships and we do not have steel for the ships, or technicians, or engineers,
or specialists.

We needed chemical products for the preservation of food and we did not
have them. We need chemical products to protect tin cans, to prevent
contamination of the food, but the country does not produce chemical
products and brings them in from here, there, and elsewhere. We need paint
to mark the can and we don't have the paint, or the technique, or the
machines to mark it, and we find ourselves in this situation where we have
to import it. We see the circumstances that in all of the north, the milk
which is consumed is a milk which comes from Holland, and you see that
Holland is far away, or it comes from Germany and you see that Germany is
far away. It has to cross the Atlantic, it has to cross the Panama Canal
Zone. [words indistinct] From there comes a bottle of milk, with a top,
with a glass, from a cow which a Dutchman, perhaps 10 kms from [words
indistinct] got up early and milked. [applause] After that, some truck went
by and picked it up and took it to an industry to be sterilized. It was
packed in a bottle made in a glass factory. It was loaded on a truck. It
was taken to a port, possibly with a big mechanized crane it was hoisted
onto a ship, the ship left, crossed the canal, it arrived here. It was
unloaded at the port, it was taken to the store, and it was delivered to
you [Castro coughs, makes indistinct side remarks to the crowd, coughs
again.]

Well, they unloaded it here, they shipped it on the train, they took it to
Chuquicamata, and then it is consumed. You can imagine how much work. Would
it not be more logical if the cow had been Chilean? [laughter] If the
milkman had been Chilean? If the truck driver, the truck, the case, the
stevedore, and the ship, [word indistinct] has to be imported from there.
Santiago, Chile, is much closer. [applause] If in the desert there is no
pasture, if in the desert there is no pasture [Castro coughs] if there is
no pasture, because there is no water, there may perhaps be water one day,
because modern science offers extraordinary possibilities. I believe that
even [words indistinct] one day, using nuclear energy, seawater will be
desalinated and there are future possibilities for Chile. It has great
natural resources.

All of this employment could be Chilean. I am not against trade, far from
it. There are, for instance, many things which are not easy for a country.
No country can produce everything it needs. No. There are however, many
items which we import as a result of underdevelopment. As a result of the
distortion of our economy, it is logical that there should be many people
who have no jobs, who are employed and that, on the other hand, we are
importing things for which natural resources exist, which could be
developed, and human resources which could be applied.

Speaking with the workers of the Chuquicamata mine, we explained to them
the milk which could be produced with 100 more tons of copper a day, adding
it up over a year, and thinking of copper not at 72 cents but at 50 cents.
All these are problems related to the development and the future of the
country.

Revolution means that the people for the first time have the opportunity to
work for their future. Revolution means that each thing that one may do,
that one does, or wishes to do, is done for the benefit of the people.
Revolutions are not easy. No one believes that revolutions are easy.

When we wished to make our revolution we met with great obstacles, great
difficulties. Why? Because we were exploited. Those who took away the sweat
of our workers, those who obtained the profits of our sugar, our nickel,
waited to punish us. They wanted to punish a nation which sought only to
improve the living conditions of its people. They wanted to punish a nation
which wanted only to work, to forge its future, without taking anything
from anyone, without [word indistinct] anything from anyone. What they
wanted to punish in our people was their will and their determination to
proclaim themselves a sovereign, free people-- a people determined to
recover their natural resources, a people determined to work for their
well-being, to earn their living with the sweat of their brows, without
taking anything from anyone else, but also not allowing anyone else to take
their sweat. [applause] [interrupted by station identification]

When our youths conducted the literacy campaign and the students went to
the fields and to the mountains to educate--because our country is not like
the great north, our country has a different landscape, there are cities,
but there are also millions of people who live isolated in the fields--then
the literacy campaign was organized. Tens of thousands of youths were sent
to these fields and sometimes, there were elements, armed abroad, trained
abroad, and paid abroad, who moved in the fields, sowing terror, and
sometimes they went so far as to kill students who were engaged in teaching
reading and writing. You can see what kind of morality that is. You can see
what an action it is to kill youths who were teaching their brothers to
read and write.

They tried by all means to deprive our country of doctors. They tried by
all means to deprive our country of markets, of raw materials, of
replacement parts. You must keep in mind that all the machines, all of our
industries, and all of our transportation came from the United States and
that one day, overnight, they absolutely prohibited the exportation of a
single piece of machinery to Cuba for industry, for transportation, for
agriculture. They also deprived us of markets--because the situation of our
country was difficult, because 80 percent of our sugar was sold on that
market--this is not the case fortunately, for you in Chile, who sell only
14 percent of your copper on that market--but we used to sell the major
part of our sugar to them and they deprived us of that market, overnight,
all of it. They prohibited the exportation of any part, a screw, a nut, an
automobile sparkplug. A country which had no industry because it had not
been allowed to develop itself, found itself suddenly deprived of fuel, of
markets, of raw materials, and of replacement parts, when 90 percent of our
machines had been built in that country. Our fatherland has been subjected
to those difficult trials, and our people have had to pay the price in
order to be sovereign, independent people--to establish a system of social
justice for themselves. [applause]

After this, lies were chanted every day, at all hours, the worst calumnies.
Why should we talk of all this, since it has all collapsed, it has all
crumbled before the awakened conscience of our brother peoples, the ties of
affection, the understanding of our common problems, which has been
demonstrated in these times among our peoples. All of these measures were,
however, taken.

The revolution did not only have to fade the objective problems posed by
our adversaries, but revolutionaries have their own problems--their lack of
knowledge, their inexperience. Suddenly, all of those who knew, all of
those who had knowledge, many of them foreigners, left. Of those who
remained, others tried by all means to undermine us and finally, they had
created a mentality, a fear (?paralysis), so that in advance, the
reactionaries try to create in the minds of the peoples fear, to form an
obstacle to the social development of the peoples. The road is difficult,
because one leaves from underdevelopment, lacking technicians and
technology, the lack of industry, and also, as we said, of the very
factors, of revolutionary peoples, and we revolutionaries ourselves make
mistakes. A process of development, a revolutionary process is not an easy
process, it is a difficult process. Nevertheless, what our country has
demonstrated is that the difficulties can be overcome. What our country has
also demonstrated is that when a small nation makes revolution, it is not
alone in the world. This is very important. If it were left without
petroleum, without markets, without raw materials, without all of that, how
could you survive? They also threatened us.

They organized expeditions against our country, (?they organized), although
ours is a small country, because this small country is not alone in today's
world. We have the force of the world revolution and can count on generous
help from abroad. Immediate help [applause], not that which comes from the
bourgeoisie, the imperialists in any part of the world. This help will be
given to us by the only source which can meet our needs: the socialist
world. [applause]

When the difficult times came, when the time came in which the imperialists
tried to separate us, they encountered a surprise. They found a united,
defined people, who could count on arms, fuel, and help to resist the
blockade. It is true that the imperialists tried to put out the
(?revolution) in our country. It is true that for nearly 10 years our
people had to concern themselves with the economy, because the first 10
years had to be devoted almost entirely to survival: to defend ourselves
and to survive for nearly 10 years.

The resources we had to use are unknown. The amount of blood shed because
of imperialist villainy, sabotage, criminal mercenary groups and bandits
trying to destroy and to cause (?terror), armed and supported by a powerful
country only a few miles from our coast.

We have lived through this history, but our people have made an effort in
this struggle, they have learned to have confidence, they have learned to
be secure. They have consolidated their unity. They have consolidated their
conscience and today they march forward with great surety, because today we
are not only able to defend ourselves, today we not only have an organized
and prepared people, today we not only have our armed forces in perfect
condition for battle and perfectly equipped to go out against aggression,
but we also have [applause] the ability. We are not only able to defend
ourselves, but to work for our development and progress.

Today our country works at an increasing speed. Today our country is
beginning important social development programs of housing construction.
Today in our country we are building in 1 year more schools than in the
first 10 years of the revolution. Today in our country we are building in 1
year more dams, more roads, more irrigation projects than in the first 10
years of the revolution. Today in our country there is a rhythm of
development. Today in our country we work not just to survive, but also to
develop ourselves. We do not only work to survive, but also to live.

Our country has the limitations of all countries which are beginning to
develop. It is a small country which is facing the problems of today's
world. Today's world has a high degree of technical development. Today's
merchant ships must be at least 50,000 to 100,000 tons. There are countries
which are building ships of up to 500,000 tons. Oil tankers are from
200,000 to 300,000 tons. You might ask if Iquique can build a ship of
200,000 tons in its shipyard or an oil tanker of 200,000 tons. A ship of
this size requires not only a shipyard of great capacity, heavy-duty
cranes, highly experienced engineers, but also motors of great power,
electronic equipment of all types, automatic systems of cargo control,
navigation methods, and so forth. In other words, extremely complicated
machinery.

Now, a small country cannot build a shipyard to build ships of 200,000
tons. A small country cannot build airplanes like the ones we see flying in
our skies. A four-engine plane, a jet transport cannot be built by a small
country. Why? First because enormous investments must be made in industry,
and second because [words indistinct] but no one can develop a great
industry for the construction of three units.

What this means is that our countries, our fraternal peoples of Latin
America, which have similar problems, which speak the same language, which
have undergone the same problems, have to study the form in which we will
join together in our own interests; how to strengthen our relations, in
what form. Let us look at an example. If you had a large flashlight battery
factory able to produce enough for yourselves and for Cuba, it would be
much more economical for you to build the factory and sell us batteries. If
you are going to build a large shipyard capable of building 100 large ships
annually, giving employment to thousands of Chileans, then the other
countries of Latin America would be able to buy ships from you--Cuba and
the other countries.

If another country builds a plan factory, it could only do so in today's
world if other Latin American countries would be consumers of these
products. That is, in order to be able to establish a modern industry, in
order to overcome underdevelopment, one can no longer think only on a
national scale. It is necessary to think at the level of the community of
countries of Latin America.

Well now, we are not fooled. We are revolutionaries. We know perfectly well
that for there to exist any possibility of true cooperation among Latin
American countries, which would be the only means for survival in
tomorrow's world, it will be necessary for the policy of all our countries
to be at the service of the peoples. It is impossible to try to mix oil and
water. [applause] One can look for cooperation between Chile and Cuba.
Especially because our country, our government, as well as the country and
government of Chile, are concerned with all those activities which interest
the people.

We passed through the Chimbuco nitrate deposit, but what a sad sight. Here
the nitrate workers are worried about the future of nitrate, and there [in
Cuba] we are building nitrogen factories. Why? Because we need more
nitrogen. Nevertheless, we cannot buy Chilean nitrate. At the same time we
are spending tens of millions in Europe buying nitrogen. Chile is spending
tens of millions buying sugar. We are not only spending money buying
nitrogen but building new industries. Chile, on the other hand, is spending
tens of millions to build factories to produce sugar. How much this has
cost our peoples.

Why? Why did they impose this criminal policy on us? I would give you an
example, but what extraordinary possibilities our peoples would have, all
of our peoples without exception, if they knew that they had the
cooperation of all Latin American people. Any one of our countries could
then develop economic programs coordinated with the other countries and
this would open infinite possibilities to our peoples. That is infinite
possibilities, but the only possibilities for the world of tomorrow.

The forefathers of our fatherlands struggled for the unity of America. They
struggled for the unity of our peoples. What happened during 250 years was
the division, the separation, of the peoples. We were weakened and divided
so they could oppress us. They divided us in order to be able to absorb us.
They divided us to be able to destroy us. Therefore, when imperialism
(?entered) our fatherland it was (?facing) a small country. They were
exercising all their influence over all the other countries. They used
their colonial organizations to maintain [words indistinct] when the Latin
American peoples of the last century had achieved independence from
colonialism our peoples were subjected to the sad luck to continue under
colonialism for nearly 80 more years.

When, after hard battles, we arrived at the hour of flying our flag and
singing our national song, this song and flag became mere symbols of a
country which had to accept the imposition of a constitutional amendment
which gave the United States the right to intervene in our territory with
its armed forces whenever it wanted to. When the revolution finally won,
they were strong enough to make Cuba an isolated island and it is certain
that the peoples with their feeling and hearts sympathized with Cuba. What
could the people do when they were not rulers of their own destiny? What
chance did we have when people sympathized with us but their leaders acted
in another manner?

These are the reasons our small country had to face everything alone. We do
not mean to say alone, because we received generous help. Unfortunately,
this generous help did not come from the fraternal republics of Latin
America. This generous help came to us from another continent and from
another people. When we say this we are not saying it as reproach, because
we know that in the Latin American peoples' heart there was sympathy for
the revolution and for the small country which was rising up against the
powerful colossus. We knew this, but we are using the situation today to
show that we were not fools and that to have politics at the service of our
peoples it is necessary for both people and governments to be identified on
the same road; for peoples and governments to march in defense of the firm
interests; in two words--that the governments represent the peoples.
[applause and cheers] For governments to represent the interests of the
peoples and not obey orders sprung from imperialism.

In conclusion, what we want is for the people to become aware, and
increasingly so, we [words indistinct] new decisive in the history of this
continent. We believe that the manifestations of independence are greater,
that it is necessary for the masses to become aware of their problems, and
that the day is not too distant when the circle of popular governments will
widen. One must not be discouraged by the setbacks, one must not be
discouraged if at any given moment a setback is produced.

We, as guests here, have the basic duty of restraining our words on all
those issues that could serve as a pretext to be used by the enemies of our
peoples. That is why, when we talk this way, we just air our ideas, we do
not want to mention any names, but we do insist that one must not get
discouraged over setbacks, because they will only be temporary. Victory,
sooner or later, will be for the people.

We were alone for a very long time, very much alone, but we did not lose
faith, we never lost hope, we never got discouraged. Today, we have much
less reason to feel discourage. Today, at least, the circle of our
relationship with a friendly, courageous people has expanded
extraordinarily. The circle of our relations with the Chilean people has
achieved the highest point it has ever had in its entire history.

[applause] That means an awful lot, if we can, between our two countries,
march on the path of fraternal cooperation, the path of cooperation,
highlighting the interests of our two countries like true brothers--to be
able to do this in all areas so that you can count on our country and our
people to the extent of our available resources, to the extent of our
possibilities.

The word brother has a definite and true significance here. The word
solidarity has a definite and true meaning here. We very much regret that
what we can do to help Chile is very little, as a small, underdeveloped
country--that we still have all our problems. The little we have, Chileans
can be assured they can take for granted. [applause]

This is the sentiment of our people. No one can ever believe, or have the
right to believe, that any one of us pursues other interests, personal
ones. We are absolutely positive that not a single Chilean will ever
believe the slanderers when they say that we want Chile's natural
resources. Some said so a few days ago, some of them said no [word
indistinct] that we came to offer cooperation for Chilean industries.
Something else, our country defended the 200-mile limit, the 200-mile
limit--in spite of the fact that this is not one of our interests; in spite
of the fact that Cuba's circumstances are not Chile's; and even in spite of
the fact that the 200 miles is no problem for us.

We did not, however, hesitate to support the 200 mile limit for fishing
waters. Take into account that we are right next to the United States and
that we are right inside the 200-mile limit of their fishing waters. I
guess you understand, do you not? The United States has 12 miles, and when
our vessels are 30 miles away they seize them and hold them, but in spite
of all this we still did not hesitate, we did not have the slightest doubt
in backing the 200-mile stand. Why? Because that is Cuba's policy, because
that is the policy of internationalist principles on which our fatherland
leans; because that is the awareness created in our people, who did not
question what is advisable for Cuba, because Cuba looks toward the future
and asks what is advisable for the peoples of Latin America; because what
is advisable for Cuba is what ever our fraternal Latin American countries
find necessary. [applause]

This is our position. Our people have been trained this way and maintain
and will continue to maintain this line with unswerving strength. We hope
that cooperation between Cuba and Chile will develop, and between Cuba and
Iquique also, since you are part of Chile. [applause]

We are deeply grateful for all the attention given to our delegation. We
say to you from the bottom of our hearts that we have been very impressed
by this city, with all the efforts that have been made; by the panorama
when one approaches here, coming down the hills one sees tremendous
mountains; by the very moment contact is made with the people of Iquique,
the contact with the ocean, when we meet is men and people. We will never
forget your attention, the emotions felt on this visit, the homage that you
have offered to our people.

We have had the chance to see in this place the work of those who converted
this city into a bulwark and birthplace of the labor movement and of the
Chilean popular movement. We have rendered deep homage and gratitude to
Luis Emilio Recabarren who was the founder [applause] the founder of the
Labor Party that later was converted into Chile's Communist Party.
[applause] Throughout this trip through these northern lands, in the mines,
everywhere, among workers, students, intellectuals, and all the people, we
have witnessed the deep respect and affection they give his memory.
Gratitude is shown for his work.

How many fought? How many were felled? How many men gave their ideals and
lives for this chance today? This chance that the Chilean people have
today, to work for their future, to start on this difficult road. Please
understand that the opportunity is not the task itself, because the
opportunity is not yet well being, because happiness and well-being we do
not only conceive of as material wealth, because we essentially conceive of
them as moral wealth, as spiritual.

There are human societies that have accomplished great wealth, such as
technological development, but which are morally and spiritually (?ruined).
Well-being is not solely the conquest of material wealth to satisfy us,
that is only part. Well-being is also the spirit of human fraternity;
brotherhood and true friendship among men. Well-being is in this human
struggle, well-being is a moral awareness of man; and it works if a
revolution can lead a human society [words indistinct] of all--those people
watch men grow old, one after another, where men instead of being
maneaters, are definitely turned into brothers, converted definitely in
human beings capable of feeling love and able to sense the need to work
together, to sacrifice themselves for others.

One of the most beautiful things is when one of our visitors (?notes) the
tremendous human changes which have taken place in our people. The
tremendous humane change. The work of revolution is not only gaged in
(?stone), it is not gaged just in strength, it is gaged by basically humane
and moral factors. We feel a great satisfaction at this moment to be able
to (?feel) that sense of fraternity, the unselfishness which characterizes
our people driven by a revolutionary education.

Let us struggle to form humane societies, just ones, societies really
deserving to be called humane. The exploitation of man has contributed to
converting human society into a jungle, where the law of the strongest
reigned, the most powerful, the most cunning, the richest. It turned human
society into a zoo.

The revolution aspires to convert human societies into true humane
societies. [Words indistinct] some people, in our country, someone may be
[words indistinct].

Everyone that fights, is his brother, a patriot. He has as a father and a
mother, the rest of his compatriots. If there is anyone sick in our
country, and if to save the life of that person, one had to spend whatever
was necessary, one spends what is necessary. If to save just one life, of
any citizen, it is necessary to send him anywhere in the world, that
citizen does not necessarily have to be a revolutionary, it is enough that
he is a citizen, it is enough for him to be a human being and he will have
the possibility that all of the country's efforts will be at his disposal
and at his service. This is an example of solidarity, a social one. But
when a Cuban citizen, a poor fisherman, a poor laborer has been abducted by
pirate bandits (?to) imperialist territory or when he has been arrested, or
when he has been the victim of some injustice, how our people react!

The entire population under those circumstances was prepared to do whatever
was necessary to save the lives of these victims. When all is added up, we
are brothers in our country, ready to defend a revolutionary, to save a
revolutionary, and even if the rest of us have to die, we are prepared to
die to defend that brother, to defend the revolutionary. [applause]

In our country, the price of admission is a very high to the fatherland;
because the fatherland is not [word indistinct]. It belongs to all. The
flag and the national anthem is valued very highly, because the flag and
the anthem belongs to everyone. That is what the revolution means.

But revolution does not consist of national achievements only. Our
fatherland is flying the banners of national values and national culture.
The word revolution means for us that the feelings we hold for every Cuban
can also be extended abroad, toward the revolutionary and all other
peoples. But, brothers, let me tell you first of all that what really
contributed greatly toward the development of our people's revolutionary
internationalist awareness was the great lesson we received in seeing the
powerful help coming to us from other countries during the difficult, very
difficult moments we suffered.

We have talked about these painful subjects today, and we were saying that
we will carry away with us a vivid impression of nature, of the people, the
oceans and even the great honor of taking us along the coast, to head a
meeting of champions, of organizing a match between Cuban and Chilean skin
divers for a friendly competition in Cuba the second half of January. The
mayor asked me if I was going to participate, and I said no.

How can I compete with a champion crew when [words indistinct]. The mayor
was extremely nice to us, he even gave us a trophy he received on the
occasion of the championship. Just think what this initially meant for the
mayor. The pride he felt when Chile won the world championship at the
Iquique games and when the champions [words indistinct]. Yet he gave us his
trophy. But listen: When he comes to Cuba, I will give it back to him. I am
going to sell it to him and make a good deal for myself. I think that that
trophy will go back and forth and journey from one place to another. So, we
have agreed on the holding of an important event.

For the first time in our life we had the opportunity to see sea lion. We
have seen them in films, postcards, and pictures but had never see them
close up. Looking form these imposing mountains covered with guano, like
snow, we saw a sea lion get up on a rock and there lay down, when we walked
past he even greeted us. He lifted himself all covered with guano and sat
very erect, and then we commented how well protocol's organized in Chile
with even a sea lion to greet us. As all this was going on, we decided not
to react this time with emotion because who knows whether this would not
lead us to having a mentality of 15 or 16-year old youths when we grow old.
But to those who were accompanying us we seemed 12-year old children: such
was our excitement [words indistinct]. We spent a wonderful day. We were
also deeply moved on our way back, as we passed near the site of that
extraordinary act of humane love demonstrated by Capt. Arturo Prat, whose
behavior was met with admiration by his chivalrous adversary, Admiral
(Grant), at the time of that painful battle between brother countries.

As we are carrying out this journey and touring the country our thoughts
and feelings are directed toward an exaltation of all which can contribute
toward a greater friendship and [word indistinct] between our peoples and
all the other Latin American peoples. Our peoples have been living their
history with long and difficult struggles. They were at times overcome by
doubt. But the future of our people will not be one of struggle, it will be
a bright future.

History, in all circumstances, will always remember acts which were a
symbol of human sacrifice and value. We Cubans are paying homage to these
values today, and it is with this act of homage that we are officially
concluding today's program. We still have other--less formal--commitments.
I wonder whether you have seen any reporters around. At the conclusion of
our meeting in Maria Elena there was a lot of [words indistinct], and it
was possible to improvise [words indistinct] because when a protocol is
well organized it is still not organized well enough to organize
improvisations. Well then, there was a factory [words indistinct] where a
discussion was going on and there was parrying between reporters and some
members of the delegation and [words indistinct]. They took very [word
indistinct]. I believe some of them [reporters] are also here today. I was
told there was a picture showing me on the ground with a ball. Someone took
this picture and sold it they say for $300.

I am not concerned over his selling the picture for $300 but what bothers
me is that he did not give me any commission. After all I believe that if
we are not allowed to make any profit, he should at least have given me a
(?hug). But he preferred to carry out the business alone. Seriously though,
he could have rewarded somebody, instead of which he [words indistinct].
Well, this is--and to top it all that picture looked as if I was engaged in
some dance with the first lady's aide.

This is really something. Well yes, ha, ha, or that I was dancing with a
portrait. They took the picture after the game somewhere and it really
looks as if I were executing some dance. But let me repeat that we will not
quarrel over this. EL CLARIN is a friendly paper and has always been Cuba's
friend. As for us, we have also had a good laugh over this paper's joke.
But I have also to tell you that there is still pending a small meeting
with reporters, and this is one of the scheduled parts we still have in
this program. We are not inviting you because there are so many of you and
there will not be enough room for all, but you can send a delegation to
represent you, if you wish to do so. The problem is that we do not know at
what time we will be able to leave.

In La Magdalena, it was the carabineros who [words indistinct] at the last
moment and everything worked out very well. Some may think I am being
partial. I have read something like that in some papers, but the truth is
that I am not being partial. Quite the contrary, and despite the fact that
there is a referee here we can continue, here in Iquique, our previous the
[word indistinct] with reporters because in Maria Elena we had no one who
would rescue us, but we are at the seaside here and we think that the
reporters would have some difficulties, especially as they have no training
and did not bring along any reinforcements. Well, this will be all, a
million thanks.
-END-


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