Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC

Final Day of Gorbachev's Official Visit

4 April News Conference

PA0504005889 Havana Domestic Radio and Television Services in Spanish 2218
GMT 4 Apr 89

[Joint news conference given by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, in
Russian with simultaneous Spanish translation, and President Fidel Castro
with local and foreign correspondents at the Palace of Conventions in

[Text] [Gorbachev] With out exchange of speeches before the National
Assembly of the People's Government, we can say that the substantive part
of our visit has ended.  However, I must tell you a secret--that is, how
our talks with Comrade Fidel Castro have developed.  We are constantly
holding talks.  Wherever we are, we hold talks.  This is why we have been
able to discuss many matters.

This visit has proven that Soviet-Cuban relations are continuing to expand
and grow stronger.  Within the context of this visit, we have been able to
discuss many matters, and, as Fidel Castro said--and I reiterate--there is
complete understanding.  This is not just a formal and mutual
understanding; it is the kind of understanding that is based on an active
exchange and comparison of ideas.  I would say that it is the result of
great intellectual activity.

We are both pleased with the negotiations.  I feel that this event will be
of importance not only for Cuban-Soviet relations but also for the whole
world.  Anyway, I am very pleased with what we have achieved in the past
few days.

[Unidentified speaker] If you have a question, please use one of the
microphones.  Use the microphones to ask your questions because the
translators need you to use them.  The first question is for the NOVOSTI

[Question indistinct]

[Gorbachev] I believe that the 30 years of experience this island has as a
result of the opinion chosen by the people is of great significance for the
whole world, especially for the peoples who have chosen the path of
independent development and for the developing states of the world.  This
has been a a unique experience.  It has been unique because all was built
from scratch.  Today, Cuba is a country with a consolidated political
system and with experience in solving economic problems in this region and
under these specific conditions.  This experience (?has helped) solve the
human and humanitarian problems in fields such as education and health.  I
think this is very important.  I think this Cuban example can influence
developing countries.

If we added to this the fact that throughout all these years and with the
support of the people, the Cuban directorate has developed a marked and
very accentuated progressive policy, has adopted positive stances that
promote equality, nonintervention, and the right of the people to choose
their own path, has promoted the need for cooperation, has supported the
principles of peaceful coexistence, and has spoken up for the countries
struggling for their liberation, we would see the overall picture of the
influence and role that Cuba has exerted and played and continues to exert
and to play.  Personally, I would rate this very highly.

[Reporter] This year Nicaragua will celebrate the 10th year of its
revolution, a socialist-oriented revolution.

[Unidentified speaker] Ten years of what?

[Reporter] Ten years of a socialist-oriented revolution.  I would like to
ask Comrade Mikhail Gorbachev why, since he is only 2 hours from my country
by air he has not visited my country, which is also in great need of this
presence, and, if in the future he will invite my president, Daniel Oretga,
to hold official talks with him in Moscow?  I also have a question for

[Castro] Who is going to answer the question?

[Reporter] One question for Gorbachev and one for you.

[Castro] Another one for me?

[Reporter] My question for you is as follows...

[Castro, interrupting] You said Comrade Mikhail.  Does that mean that you
are a member of the Nicaraguan Communist Party?

[Reporter] I am a world communist.

[Castro] How nice.  What question do you have for me?

[Reporter] Since we are sister countries, did you also represent Nicaragua
in your talks with Mikhail?  Did you tell Comrade Mikhail that toady, more
than ever, Nicaraguan needs his solidarity support to defeat imperialism?

[Gorbachev] I will begin.  The first thing is that we maintain active
relations and conversations with the Nicaraguan leaders.  Those relations
also include visits, exchanges at the highest levels, and at other levels,
exchange of information, and exchanges of letters and messages.  That is
why we say we maintain permanent and active relations with Nicaragua.

Regarding a meeting between Nicaraguan and Soviet leaders, we can say it
will take place in the near future.  It will be a separate meeting.
Nicaragua deserves more than a secondary meeting.  In other words, it is
not a matter of being challenged to go there because Nicaragua is a people
and state that has shown its love for freedom and its courage, and those
qualities demand respect for that people and that state and especially for
that country's leaders.  This is precisely what we are getting at.  We have
held meetings and there will be other meetings.

[Reporter in progress] ...that you represented us in your talks with
Gorbachev, that you were also a Nicaraguan representative?

[Castro] And Gorbachev was also a Nicaraguan representative.

[Reporter] That is correct.

[Castro] The two of us have been Nicaraguan representatives.

[Reporter] That is correct, but what I wish to know is whether it was
specifically said that Nicaragua must have more support from the USSR and
Cuba not that the imperialists want to destroy Nicaragua.

[Castro] I will tell you something, because I take the question you asked
Comrade Gorbachev a little personally.  You asked him why he came to Cuba
and not Nicaragua?  Well, he came to visit us.  We may look selfish and it
may seem that we want to keep the entire honor of Gorbachev's visit to
ourselves.  The truth is, I have insistently told Comrade Gorbachev's--in
previous conversations--to visit Latin American countries.  I have defended
that cause.  Along with my conversations with him about visiting Latin
America, many Latin American countries have invited Comrade Gorbachev to

You said Nicaragua has a socialist orientation.  I am not sure whether the
Sandinists would agree with that.  I have never heard them use the term
socialist orientation.  They talk about a mixed economy, a multiparty
system, and a number of other things.  But I have not heard them use the
term socialist orientation and perhaps they do not agree with you saying
that.  There are other countries that have in fact talked about a process
of socialist orientation.  Nicaraguans have not talked about that.  And I
truly believe, I know, that Nicaraguans want Comrade Gorbachev to visit
Nicaragua.  I know they want Gorbachev to visit Nicaragua as many other
leaders want Gorbachev to visit their countries.  I, myself, was
thinking--and this is my own.... [changes thought] Cuba already has a
special status, because it is a CEMA member, it is a socialist country, it
has had  links with the USSR for the last 30 years, and Cuba is recognized
as a socialist country.  if Gorbachev leaves Cuba and visits another Latin
American country, the most likely thing to happen would be that he would
have a very serious diplomatic problem with another leader.  I say this
because I, myself, have insisted to him that he should visit other Latin
American countries.  I want Comrade Gorbachev to tour Latin America so
Latin American countries can have the opportunity to see what a Soviet
leader looks like.  That would help the cause [word indistinct].

I understand it would be easy to leave Cuba and visit another country
because he would then have to visit 10 other countries, and politically
speaking, if Comrade Gorbachev had visited Nicaragua, it would have looked
like Gorbachev only has relations with Cuba and Nicaragua and not with the
rest of Latin America.  I answered that question because I took it a little

As for Nicaragua--yes, we have talked about Nicaragua.  That is logical.
It is impossible to meet with any leader, with any socialist leader and not
talk about Latin American problems.  We talked with the sympathy and spirit
of friendship and solidarity with which we always talk about Nicaragua.  I
believe that to a certain extent Comrade Gorbachev and I have been
representing Nicaragua.  We must be fair, right?  If not, we would be
accused of being sectarian.

[Reporter] Comrade Gorbachev, I am from the Cuban television, and I have
one question for you please.  At the end of your speech, you talked about
the need to hold an international meeting....

[Unidentified speaker, interrupting] Please, who is speaking?

[Reporter] I am back here.

[Unidentified speaker] Introduce yourself in front of the microphone.

[Second unidentified speaker] Turn on the microphone.

[Reporter] I am back here.  This is the only place I could find a

[Castro] And who is speaking on that microphone?

[Reporter] I am from the Cuban television, back here.

[Unidentified speaker] [Please indistinct]

[Reporter] We were asking whether...

[Reporter, interrupting] Last Year I visited your country.  I was very
impressed with what is happening there in terms of the reforms you are
introducing in your country, especially glasnost, which I myself
experienced as a journalist.  I was completely free to talk with people.
The situation in my country is extraordinarily [words indistinct] as much
as in the rest of the world.  You have been presenting new ideas to the
world.  You have done that in all fields.  Now, in Cuba, however, you have
not presented anything new, at least not to us.  I am not saying Cuba is a
Soviet puppet or colony or that you can impose your policy on Fidel Castro,
but perhaps you may have made a recommendation or presented something new
and fresh, something brilliant like the many other things you have
presented.  Is there anything in this regard we do not know about and that
you have in fact discussed?

[Gorbachev] I would like to say that for us, this meeting with Fidel, with
Cuba's supreme leader, has been very important.  The socialist world, as
well as the world as a whole is experiencing a period of change.  I would
say this is a special period.  That is how I would describe it.  It is very
important now that we take correct positions and not choose the wrong path.
This is why we say the world is at a crossroads.  From this viewpoint, we
have had a very intense discussion that has covered the philosophical
aspects of today's world as well as its perspectives.  In particular, the
discussions dealt with how we--the Soviet Union and Cuba in particular, but
not just our two countries--must act.

In this respect, we have a total and mutual understanding.  We think the
world is tired of confrontation.  The entire world is facing the challenge
of very serious global problems--that is, nuclear weapons, the ecology, and
the backwardness or underdevelopment of many countries.  This calls for
responding and making important decisions; namely, that policies be changed
or modified.  The policy of force has been totally discredited.  It does
not have any constructive principles.  That is why we must end this period
of cold war and usher in a new phase.  The fundamental part of our
discussion with Comrade Castro was devoted precisely to this matter.  In
other words, I took great pleasure in discussing these matters with him.
We agree on the need to have new openings in thinking and policy.  The best
propaganda today is a real policy.  The people are tired of deceptions and
political charlatanism.  People need practical steps to restructure the
international situation.

I want to say that we agreed on this point and will act in this direction.
The socialist world is also experiencing a period of profound changes.  In
this respect, you newsmen know there is information that can become
disinformation.   They say disinformation is a kind of information.
However, some use information to express the truth, while others use it to
confuse people and prevent them from finding the right answers.  That is
why, in this respect, there are many changes in socialist countries.
Indeed, representatives of the most varied social and political sectors, as
well as of other sectors, have done a great deal of serious reflection.

I welcome this.  However, in another respect, there is no need for
speculation.  There is no need for all this speculation that reeks of old
mothballs from the time of the cold war.  My visit here was preceded by
much speculation.  It seemed like we were not going to meet with Comrade
Fidel Castro as old friends, which is what we truly are, but as enemies.
This is a mere fabrication.  This is a fabrication.  However, there are
people who wish that were the case.  We have been friends, and today our
friendship is broader and deeper.

In principle, this is very significant.  For example, show me any two
capitalist countries that follow the same course or that have the same
policies.  No country totally resembles another.  No country is a copy of
another.  Past mistakes, our own mistakes included, were caused because we
often tried too copy something, and when there was something creative we
would approach dogmatically and this was harmful.  We renounce this
approach.  We now support our own values and our own brand of socialism.
We have said this and the people have reiterated it more than once so
everyone will know it and so no one will expect something else from us.

In other words, through restructuring, we are going to improve socialism.
That is what we are doing and everyone should know it.  And in this
particular case,each country solves the problems of its socialist
transformation according to its own conditions, according to its level of
development, and its political experiences while bearing in mind its
traditions, its importance, its role, its incorporation into a certain
process, and so forth.  This is a very complex logic and that is why there
are differences in the methods used by the Soviet and the Cuban leadership.

We are responsible for furthering socialism, expanding its outlook, and
displaying the tremendous potential of this regime.  The main thing
is--regardless of the methods we use--that we try through these means and
methods to get the workers, the people, to step into the political arena,
to join the political life as the guiding force through democracy, through
the new forms of organizing the economy, through the political processes,
through glasnost, and so forth.  Our conversations have been very serious
in this respect.

[Reporter] Jorge Vejar from Peru.

[Castro] Whom do you represent?

[Reporter] [Words indistinct]

[Castro] Ah, from Santiago, Chile, I do not understand why you say that
Comrade Gorbachev did not say anything new.

[Reporter] No?

[Castro] But he has just delivered a speech in which he says many new
things, interesting, constructive things.  It was a great speech.  If not,
we cannot go around asking for trouble.  We believe the speech by Gorbachev
was very good.  In the second place, concerning the general aspect of it I
think an expression of the genius of Gorbachev is not to try to come to
another country to tell this country what it has to do.  That is a
manifestation of the genius, which is what I admire the most and I
mentioned it in the session today.  [applause]

[Reporter] I am from the Cuban television.  May I please have a microphone?
Cuban television, please.  We would like to ask you:  In you speech you
referred to the need for an international meeting where the north, south,
east, and west would be represented to discuss the debt problem and the
problems of the international economic system.  When and where do you think
this meeting could be held?

[Gorbachev] As long as world problems such as the debt, the indebtedness
problem, are examined by small groups of seven, three and so forth, this
process will not advance.  The problem must be internationalized.  This is
a problem of the entire world community, and I think we must deal with it
on that level in order to examine it.  The best place would be the United
Nations.  I think there is already a possibility, there is a first
opportunity, inasmuch as there will be a special session devoted to this
issue.  However, I continue to hope that the United Nations will create
some type of institution that will be in permanent session and that will be
willing to make a serious analysis of the situation, and discuss real
measures to solve this problem, which I think is one of the most acute
problems of our civilization.

[Reporter] Jorge Vejar from Lima, Peru, President Fidel Castro has
reiterated his demand for the creditor countries to cancel the foreign
debts of the Third World countries.  Mr Gorbachev, would the USSR be
willing to cancel the Cuban debt?

[Gorbachev] I have talked specifically about our willingness to discuss
this, and we have discussed this here.  We have agreed too continue our
analysis of this so that we can later take specific steps with other
countries.  We are willing to act, as I have said, at the United Nations.

[Castro] I think I should say something about the problem, for fear someone
will think we are advocating the cancellation of Cuba's debt with the USSR.
We have had relations with the USSR for 30 years.  For 30 years, we have
been receiving loans from the USSR.  I have explained that here in Latin
American when we have discussed the debt issue.  We have never had any
financial problems with the USSR, never.

We can say that ever since the early years, our debts--the debts between
the USSR and Cuba--were automatically renegotiated.  Never did the
existence of debt.... [changes thought]  They were continuously
renegotiated.  There was no interest.  That is the nature of our relations.
The debt never led the USSR too suspend their loans to us.  They were
development loans.  For every 5-year period, we received loans for
thousands of rubles on easy terms.  I would like the problems faced by
Latin American countries with their creditors to be similar to the problems
we have with the USSR.  Of course, when we present an idea, we do so in
general terms, and I believe the USSR also interprets it that way.

However, in view of that question, I feel it is my duty to say that we have
never had any financial problems with the USSR.  The debt we have acquired
for our development has been systematically renegotiated and postponed,
and for every 5-year period we have received more loans for development.
We are currently discussing the loans we are to receive for the 1990-1995
period.  We have dozens of important economic goals that we have discussed
with the USSR.  If this type of relationship existed between Third World
countries and their creditor banks in capitalist countries, there would
really be no foreign debt problem.  Cuba has never felt the weight of that
problem because we have not really experienced that problem.  That is the
truth and we should say so.

In addition, Comrade Gorbachev cannot forgive the debt by himself.  There
is a directorate, a party, a state, and other organizations involved....
[changes thought]  What a question.  What do you want?  Do you want to
damage the good relations between Comrade Gorbachev and me with that

[Reporter] The Chilean political (?situation):  Do you think the elections
scheduled for the end of the year will create more social equality and
democracy in that country?  The question is for Fidel.

[Castro] Before the plebiscite, I was sure Pinochet would lose.  I thought
it was a good opportunity to leave behind that dark period of Chilean
history.  I am convinced that if the opposition is united, it will once
again defeat Pinochet if he is the candidate--I do not believe he can be a
candidate.  The opposition would defeat any progovernment candidate, there
is no doubt about that, just like we did not doubt that Pinochet would
lose the plebiscite.  I believe the upcoming elections will at least create
a democratic period in Chile.  It is an important step, without a doubt.  I
am not yet ready to say the elections will create a period of social
justice, because that is something else.  However, if there is a democratic
opening in Chile, it would be an important step.  I support the elections,
I support the election process, and I support the unity of all opposition
groups.  I do not doubt the outcome of the elections.  Are you doubtful?

[Reporter] Comrade Gorbachev, I am from Radio Pacifica from the United
States.  Since your government... [interrupted by unidentified speaker]
Who me?  Comrade Gorbachev, I am Ron from Radio Pacific from the United
States.  Since your government has signed an agreement with the United
States.... [sentence as heard]

[Gorbachev] A Mexican correspondent asked a very important question.  I
believe I am in Latin America now, and as for which Latin American country
I will visit next, it is difficult for me to say now, but it is a fact that
we have normal relations with almost all Latin American countries,
especially with the larger countries.  We value political dialogue and the
cooperation that has existed between the USSR and Latin American countries
in the past few years.  We support the great changes that are currently
taking place on this continent.

[Reporter in Russian with simultaneous Spanish translation] We would like
to know how the reconstruction process in Armenia is coming along.  I also
wish to express our willingness, the willingness of the students who
studied in the USSR, to go to Armenia and help at any time.  We would like
you to tell us how the reconstruction in Armenia is coming along.

[Gorbachev] You are aware of the strength of the earthquake that rocked
Armenia.  You are aware of the number of lives lost as a result of that
earthquake.  It was a terrible human tragedy.  The earthquake claimed
thousands of lives.  It destroyed thousands of families and devastated
several cities and dozens of towns.  At this time I wish to express, on
behalf of all our people, our sincere gratitude for the enormous support,
especially the moral support, we received during those days.  That support
continues to this day.

The plans for the reconstruction of the area have been drafted.  These
plans are for the reconstruction of the area at the epicenter of the quake.
Our first estimate was that we would need between 8 and 10 billion rubles.
However, it now seems we will need somewhere between 12 and 14 billion
rubles to carry out these plans.  All the republics have agreed to help
implement these plans and supply the equipment that will be needed to
reconstruct the area in the next 3 or 4 years.  We are working at full
force.  The Politburo commission for the reconstruction of Armenia is doing
its job, it is responsible for directing this work.  This work will not
only be going on in the Republic, but also at the Politburo and at the
Soviet Government's highest levels.  We are going to do all we can to
rebuild the area.  At this time we are doing our best to help those who
were affected by the earthquake that rocked that area.  We are guaranteeing
them jobs, children are going to school, and we are doing all that is

[Odoris]  Silvia Odoris, EFE, I have two questions, one for Mr Gorbachev
and one for Mr Castro.

Mr Gorbachev, I would like to hear your opinion regarding the Central
American conflict, a conflict that does not only involve the five countries
of the region--Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and
Honduras--but also Cuba.  What role will the USSR, together with the United
States, play?  Will it play the role of an ambassador?  Will it speak on
behalf of Cuba and help solve the conflict?

Mr Castro...

[Castro, interrupting] Do you think this is a colony...

[Odoris, interrupting] No.

[Castro] Do you think this is a colony whose foreign policy must be
discussed by the United States and the USSR?  I have to answer that
question because I feel it is my business and that your question is
inappropriate unless we resign ourselves to the fact that our decisions are
discussed with other countries and not with Cuba.  What question did you
wish to ask me?

[Odoris] The privileged dialogue...

[Castro, interrupting] The what dialogue?

[Odoris] The privileged dialogue between the United States and the USSR
could help...

[Castro, interrupting] What does privileged dialogue mean?  Explain that to
us because this is a new phrase for us.

[Odoris]  That they sit down to talk, Mr Castro.

[Castro] We also sit down to talk.

[Odoris] With the United States?

[Castro] Privileged dialogue.  We may not have the privilege of sitting
down to talk with the United States, but the United States sits down to
talk with many people around the world.  I do not know why you use that
phrase, privileged dialogue.

[Odoris] Forgive me, it was never my intention to offend you or Cuba.

[Castro] But it was part of your question.

[Odoris] I feel that if there is a dialogue between the two superpowers,
the Central American situation could improve.

[Castro] Well, the superpowers have the privilege of being super, but being
small is nothing to be ashamed of.  If being large is a privilege, I wish
we were a large country.

[Unidentified speaker] The superpowers sometimes have the privilege of
assuming greater responsibilities.

[Castro] Gentlemen, do you not think you are taking advantage of us?  You
were present at the National Assembly.  You heard Mr Gorbachev speak.  You
heard my introductory remarks.  We have a busy agenda that has to be
completed, yet you want to deprive me of the privilege of having more time
to speak with Comrade Gorbachev.  We have many matters t discuss and very
little time.  Do you not think you could show some generosity and
solidarity and release us from this news conference?  It was not easy
for us, but we promised to come here and speak to you for a few minutes.
30 minutes.  However, more than 30 minutes have passed.  Well, you can
question me as much as you want.  I know it is more difficult to question
Comrade Gorbachev.  I have fewer problems and less work than Comrade
Gorbachev.  Therefore, I have more time for you.

For example, today's event was very important.  The main issues we
discussed during the meeting.  You must have heard something newsworthy.
Have you sent out reports on today's event?  Then what kind of reporters
are you?  Have you sent out reports?  But it was the most important event.
This is just the dessert.  Therefore, the most important thing has taken
place, right?  We all agree?  [applause]

[Unidentified speaker] We will hear the two last questions.

[Reporter] First, I would like to congratulate everyone.  Cubans and
Soviets, for signing the friendship treaty.  Second, dear Comrade
Gorbachev, we would like to hear you enlightened words on the situation in
Lebanon.  Everyone knows that due to the expansionist policy of Israel and
due to the policy of the United States and that of its puppet, the
separatist military government that represents the owners of the privileges
in Lebanon, the unity of that country is threatened today more than ever.
Comrade Gorbachev, do you see any possible solution to the Lebanon crisis
in the near future?  Thank you.

[Gorbachev] I regard the problem of Lebanon in the context of the situation
in the Middle East.  I am convinced that we are nearing a stage in which
the international solution to the Middle East situation is possible, is
real.  Also, the representatives of the majority of the states of the
world--including the most diverse regions of both the east and the west, as
well as the developing countries--support this solution.  There are
difficulties.  There are very particular aspects in Israel's position that
cannot be overlooked and that, at this moment, represent the main
obstacles.  However, inasmuch as this is a matter of undoing this know,
certain proposals have been made that consider the interests of all the
people of the region--the Arabs and the Israelis, and, of course the people
of Palestine--and that are aimed at solving the problem of returning the
land.  Other regional conflicts have already been solved, therefore, I
think we are on the verge of solving this serious and very old
international problem.

Now, in the context of the international situation, the USSR is going to do
everything possible to see how it can alleviate the problems of the
Lebanse people.  It will make use of all possibilities to this effect.
Now, the last question.

[Rydnow] I represent Radio Pacific in the United States.  My name is Ron
Rydnow.  I have a question for Comrade Gorbachev.  Since your country
proposed world nuclear disarmament, and since you and other countries
signed a treaty to reduce the number of weapons, the United States has
increased the number of its nuclear weapons, particular submarine and other
types of weapons.  The army wants to increase military spending.  Thus, it
seems to me that perhaps the United States does not agree with your idea
of promoting a peaceful world.  Could it be that your policy is a bit too
idealistic or that you are a bit too idealistic and that the United States
is not willing to bring about a peaceful world?

[Gorbachev] When we announced our plan to have a world without nuclear
weapons and without violence, we also promoted the idea of eradicating
nuclear weapons by the year 2000.  Illusion and utopia were the precise
words used to describe our plan.  But only 2 or 3 years have passed, and
already we have the first treaty to eradicate one class of nuclear weapons.
We are also in the process of negotiating a treaty that calls for reducing
nuclear weapons by 50 percent.  Regarding the United States and the USSR,
this process has advanced very slowly, it has advanced slowly.

Finally, we have made some progress regarding chemical weapons.  Also
pending is the process for reducing conventional weapons and troops in
Europe.  We also have the Stockholm II agreement on the measures on mutual
trust.  In other words, 2 or 3 years have passed and those who believed in
the possibility of disarmament have been proved right.  Those who supported
the reduction of both conventional and nuclear weapons and who believed
in the possibility of moving from the policy of confrontation and force to
a political process based on negotiation have been proved right.  Just look
at how the world is reacting.  The broadcast sectors of society are taking
part in international politics.

This is the first time such participation has been seen since the war.
That is why I believe this process is gaining momentum and becoming more
widespread.  The possibility of continuing to make progress exists.  I also
think the U.S. people will demand that their government continue to make
progress regarding nuclear disarmament.  I an convinced that nuclear
disarmament is possible, the main thing is that it is absolutely necessary.

He who assumes the responsibility.... [changes thought]  He who avoids,
shuns, or uses negotiations and talks to camouflage his plans and frustrate
the disarmament process will have a serious load on his shoulders and will
be forced to account for his actions to his people and to the world.

Doors, enormous doors have been opened for action.  I believe the
politicians who have vision will be the ones capable of adopting real
policies and taking real steps.  This is an urgent need of our times.
Those capable of understanding the people's true feelings and reflecting
them in their actions will obtain results.  Although it will be difficult,
this process will continue to gain strength.

Thank you very much.  Time is up now.  Thank you very much.