Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC

Castro Speaks at 36th Moncada Anniversary
Havana Domestic Radio and Television Services
BRS Assigned Document Number:    000014823
Report Type:         Daily Report             AFS Number:     PA2707024589
Report Number:       FBIS-LAT-89-143          Report Date:    27 Jul 89
Report Series:       Daily Report             Start Page:     1
Report Division:     CARIBBEAN                End Page:       8
Report Subdivision:  Cuba                     AG File Flag:   
Classification:      UNCLASSIFIED             Language:       Spanish
Document Date:       26 Jul 89
Report Volume:       Thursday Vol VI No 143


City/Source of Document:   Havana Domestic Radio and Television Services

Report Name:   Latin America

Headline:   Castro Speaks at 36th Moncada Anniversary

Author(s):   Fidel Castro Ruz, president of the Councils of State and
Ministers, on the 36th anniversary of the attack on the Moncada
Barracks at the Major General Ignacio Agramonte Square in
Camaguey, Cuba--live]

Source Line:   PA2707024589 Havana Domestic Radio and Television Services in
Spanish 2214 GMT 26 Jul 89

Subslug:   [Speech by Fidel Castro Ruz, president of the Councils of State and
Ministers, on the 36th anniversary of the attack on the Moncada
Barracks at the Major General Ignacio Agramonte Square in Camaguey,

1.  [Text] Distinguished guests, residents of Camaguey, compatriots from all
over the country:

2.  I thought that it might rain during the ceremony. I thought this when I
heard that a cold front was moving from east to west. However, after so many
months of drought, even if it rains on a day like today, the rain would be
welcome. [applause]

3.  We do not know if this drizzle will continue all afternoon. We do not know
if it will rain harder or if it will stop, but it is up to you to decide if I
should hurry [crowd shouts: ``No''], whether I should speak fast [crowd shouts:
``No''], or speak at my usual measured pace [applause; crowd shouts: ``Measured
pace'']. I know that no amount of water can douse our enthusiasm or dilute our

4.  Now, what stands out about this 26 July? I personally, and many visitors to
Camaguey, are impressed by the level of enthusiasm and fighting spirit found
here in this city and this province. Why, after so many years of
revolution--quite a few have passed--is enthusiasm growing instead of
declining? The fighting spirit is growing. How can we explain that? I do not
think there is a mystery in this. It is what the Revolution has done for the
people. It is what the Revolution has done for mankind throughout the country
and in this province. It is what it has meant to our nation and our compatriots
to have the opportunity to build their own path and write their own history.

5.  If we ask ourselves--and if the honorable visitors in foreign delegations
ask--what the Revolution has done for mankind, we could say--without going into
too much detail--that if we look at the area of education, which our
compatriots, from Jose de la Luz y Caballero to Jose Marti, have described as
an inevitable element of a people's progress, and of a people's independence
and dignity, we could point to some things achieved by the Revolution in that
area here in this province.

6.  First, there was the establishment of a university with 9 schools and 25
courses of study; a Higher Institute of Medical Sciences that was recently
completed [applause] with a possible enrollment of almost 3,000 students and 3
schools; and a Higher Pedagogical Institute with 7 schools. [applause]

7.  There is one university preparatory institute of exact sciences for 2,500
students [applause], a military vocational school, an arts vocational school,
and teachers schools for over 2,000 students. There is a school for training
child care center teachers with an enrollment of 500, a school for physical
education and sports teachers with over 500 students, and a school for sports
training for over 1,000 students. There are 21 university preparatory schools
in the rural areas, 43 new basic secondary schools for nearly 41,000 students,
319 primary schools, 63 part-time boarding schools where approximately 36,000
students are enrolled. There are 12 polytechnical schools with over 15,000
students, 41 special schools, 62 child care centers, 8 youth centers for
pioneers, not to mention all the other projects.

8.  Did all of these institutions exist before the Revolution?  Has more been
done for the education of the people anywhere else? I am referring only to this
province, to Camaguey. In the field of health, there has been construction
work, remodeling, and the modernization of 24 hospitals with nearly 5,000 beds
[applause], 25 polyclinics, 15 dental clinics, and 18 prosthetic workshops, all
at the service of the people, free of charge. There are dozens of other
institutions that range from nursing homes for the elderly and for the
handicapped to maternity homes, and so on, and so on. What about the results in
a province that had a high rate of illiteracy and a large number of citizens
who could barely read or write? Yet today, the people have completed a
mid-level education, up to the 7th grade.

9.  Thirty-five out of every 100 adult citizens go to school.  [Among children]
there is almost 100-percent school enrollment, and approximately 97 percent
stay in school.  In the University of Camaguey, enrollment today is nearly
double that of the total number of students throughout the entire country at
the time of the triumph of the Revolution. [applause] More higher-level
students are graduating every year than the total number of university
graduates throughout the entire country at the time of the triumph of the

10.  The infant mortality rate, which was greater than 60 for every 1,000 live
births during the 1st year, and which reached 26 for every 1,000 live births 10
or 11 years ago, has dropped to 11 for every 1,000 live births. [applause] The
life expectancy rate has risen to nearly 75 years of age. The number of
physicians has multiplied several times over. We even have the family doctor
program, with currently over 350 doctors. In this province alone, we have more
family doctors than all the family doctors available in the country at the time
the Revolution triumphed. [applause]

11.  As for the economy, this province relied solely on sugar plantations and
related industries; some of these were small. They were more like small shops
than industries.  The energy industry was born with the Revolution. The
province's generating capability increased more than 20 times over. Nearly
5,000 km of electric cables were strung. Today it would be impossible to think
of these lights, the stadium, or this event without this development in the
energy sector.

12.  With the Revolution, the chemical industry was born.  The province is now
able to produce hundreds of thousands of tons of ammonia, urea, and mixed
fertilizers every year. With the Revolution, the mechanical industry was born
in Camaguey, which today can proudly show a modern plant where thousands of
Camagueyans work [applause], manufacturing civilian and military products.
There are plants that produce barbed wire, wire-drawing machines, and machine
tools. There are about 200 machine shops in the agricultural sector alone.

13.  With the Revolution, the construction materials industry was born. It
started with a modest cement manufacturing plant capable of producing 600,000
tons a year and was run like a clock. This industry now has modern plants,
which manufacture light earthenware products. There are also eight stone mills,
one of which can produce more than a million cubic meters. There are dozens of
other plants that make these projects possible that you have before your very
eyes right now. [applause]

14.  Out of the Revolution, the prefabricated and mechanized construction
industry emerged with numerous plants of every kind, such as the Sandino, Gran
Panel, and the INS [not further identified] plants, all lodged in the
magnificent 26-story building, built virtually in a year and which we now can
see. [applause]

15.  Construction was mechanized. The food industry was truly born with the
Revolution. The best example of this industry is the modern beer factory that
produces 25,000 cases per day [applause] and is known as one of the country's
best because of its high-quality production. We also have a modern beef plant
that can process up to 1,000 heads of cattle per day. There is also a pork
plant that can process 500 units per day. We have the pasteurizing plants, the
new cheese factories, and dozens of food industries.

16.  The Revolution promoted the development of the sugar industry. New
standardized sugar mills have been built in this province. All the old sugar
mills have been rebuilt or remodeled. The sugarcane by-products industry was
born and is still being developed. Our agriculture became more technical. It
was modernized and mechanized.

17.  When the Revolution triumphed, all the rice produced in Cuba was harvested
by hand. All the sugarcane was harvested and carried by hand. Most agricultural
and transportation work was done by animals. How could we have ever conceived
of this modern Camaguey if we still had to harvest rice by hand and cut and
carry sugarcane by hand? How could we carry out the sugar harvest without the
115 collection and processing centers this province has?

18.  All of this resulted in great advances. Farm production increased in many
areas. Industrial production and construction also increased. Thousands of
economic and social projects were built in these years of revolution. 
Thousands of kilometers of highways, railroad lines, and roads were built
during these years. I am talking exclusively about Camaguey Province.
[applause] All kinds of facilities were built in port areas. We built centers
to store sugar in bulk. We mechanized port cargo. We built new ports and new
facilities to store fuel and urea. Some of these facilities were very

19.  In a province which I believe had only one small dam, 44 large dams and
179 medium-sized and minidams have been built in recent years. [applause]
Thanks to the development that has taken place since the triumph of the
Revolution, 105,000 new housing units have been built in Camaguey Province.
[applause] In other words-- I have not done an exact count, but I imagine--of
the over 700,000 inhabitants of the province, over 50 percent of Camaguey 's
families are living today in houses built since the triumph of the Revolution.

20.  I have not mentioned three important areas: scientific activities, which
were born with the Revolution in this province. Today the province has dozens
of laboratories, and a very modern genetic engineering and biotechnology
research center has just been inaugurated. It is the second center of its kind
in the country. Perhaps it is not correct to say that it was inaugurated,
because several weeks of work remain to be done. It was decided not to hasten
completion to meet today's date in order to guarantee the quality of the work.

21.  Today we do things like those that we can see at the Shrimp Cultivation
Center, such as the biological processes that are under way there: artificial
insemination of shrimp, and all those scientific and technical processes that
provide the basis for significant development in that area of production. Our
hospitals have achieved a high level of scientific expertise.

22.  I have not mentioned the area of culture, which has developed so much in
these years of revolution. Symbols of this are the Camaguey Ballet [applause],
the symphony orchestra, the Ignacio Agramonte Museum, the reconstruction of
theaters, the development and conservation of the historical sector of the
city, the cultural offices in all the province's municipalities, and an
activity that has allowed the city of Camaguey to stage a show like the one
staged yesterday, a show of extraordinary quality [applause], solely with
artists from Camaguey.

23.  I have not mentioned the area of sports, which was born with the
Revolution. Examples of this are the stadiums like the Candido Gonzalez
Stadium, the multisports arena completed recently [applause] that is
undoubtedly the largest and one of the most beautiful of its kind in the
country. A visitor to the area around this square who sees that multisports
arena would not know if he were in Camaguey or in ancient Greece during the
time of its greatest architectural splendor. [applause]

24.  This development in sports is manifested not just in the school for
teachers I spoke of earlier, or in the sports schools for beginners, or in the
athletic training schools, which I believe I failed to mention. It is
manifested in the almost 800 sports facilities that have been built by the
Revolution here in Camaguey Province.

25.  Furthermore, if the people of Camaguey feel satisfied with what they have
created in the past through their work and their revolutionary spirit, I think
they must feel much more satisfied with what they are creating now for the
future. A little over 2 years ago, we visited this province for several days.
We toured many places together with Comrade Lazaro [Vazquez, first secretary of
the Communist Party of Cuba in Camaguey].

26.  I recall that, in those days, there was a process of rectification of the
errors and negative trends in many fields that were holding us back. We were
motivated by the enthusiasm of this province, by the cultural and technical
expertise it was acquiring, by the prestige and authority of our party. I told
the people of Camaguey about the important plans. We also spoke of the great
natural resources of this province, which is the least populated, that is, the
one with fewer people per square kilometer than any other area in the country.
We were working on several projects. We suggested to the party leadership the
possibility of turning Camaguey Province into a model of development for the
Third World, but, first of all, into a model of development for food production
as well as social development.

27.  Some of these agricultural plans were halted in the last few years. I am
not going to explain now the factors that led to that situation, since I have
already done so in the past. We proposed at the time to develop in Camaguey the
largest dairy production plan in the world [applause], to develop fully the
14,000 caballerias available for agriculture around the city, toward the west,
toward the southwest, the south, the southeast, the east, and the northeast of
the city. We prepared a plan to build 300 new large dairy farms over a period
of time not to exceed 6 years.

28.  The first teams were appointed and the work began. We proposed to the
people of the province the idea of doubling rice production, of promoting
sugarcane production in order to guarantee sugar production of no less than a
million tons per year, and, in addition, sufficient raw materials for other
uses of sugarcane, particularly for feeding cattle. We proposed the idea of not
wasting even one leaf of the sugarcane, not even the dry leaves.

29.  We proposed the idea of considerably promoting the production of food and
vegetables to fully satisfy the province's needs. We proposed the idea of
promoting the plan for citrus fruits until we reached up to 1,000 caballerias,
which was initially proposed. We talked about the need to work hard on the
citrus fruit plantations' irrigation systems. The plantations did not even
amount to 100 caballerias at that time. We proposed the idea of taking full
advantage of all the water that runs through our rivers and streams. We talked
about the need to recover our hydraulic potential. We proposed the idea of
turning those sterile plains into highly productive land. We proposed the idea
of promoting the production of fish in all dams and reservoirs, in all medium-
and small-sized dams. We even proposed the idea of taking advantage of the
manure from the many head of cattle around the city and to turn the manure into
humus through worm-breeding [lombricultura] to produce thousands of tons of
animal protein for the preparation of fodder.

30.  We proposed maximizing our use of technical and scientific breakthroughs
in our soil technology to ensure that we cultivated the appropriate amount of
sugarcane on each plot of land, to ensure that we cultivated an appropriate
variety of pastureland for each hectare.

31.  We were planning great programs in agriculture and other fields. We
carefully studied how we could implement those programs. We discussed how to
develop agriculture as part of an integral plan. We had begun to do just that
in the 1st few years of the Revolution, but then neglected to do that, because
theorists peddled the crazy idea of playing around with capitalist mechanisms
here. As a result of this, even ghost towns appeared.  These ghost towns had
buildings under construction but no streets; where there were streets, there
was no sewage system; where there was a sewage system, there was no running
water; there were no stores, day-care centers, schools, or any kind of public

32.  We emphasized the idea of integral plans in keeping with a genuinely lofty
and revolutionary concept of socialism whereby development would be planned and
the solution to problems would not be left to chance. We recall that, at that
time, we urged this province to fight for the right to host this 26 July
celebration. [applause] Moreover, we urged the province to fight for the right
to host the fifth congress of our party. [applause] Of course, this province
will have to compete with all the other provinces in the country for that
right. However, I am sure that, although this will be difficult, Camaguey
Province will definitely not be among the least favored ones.  [applause]

33.  To celebrate this 26 July, this province completed more than 1,000
projects, ranging from a small center for transplanting embryos--the building
of which encompasses an area of approximately 800 square meters--to a building
like this one, with more than 100 apartments and 26 floors. This building is
not regarded as over 100 individual projects, but as one project, just as the
multipurpose stadium is regarded as one project. [applause]

34.  More than 1,000 projects have been completed since the province set out to
win the right to host the 26 July celebration. This has taken place over the
past 18 months. The accomplishments of this province impress all visitors. We
made a tour yesterday with a large group of reporters, who were more than
impressed, more than impressed [repeats himself]; they were amazed at what they

35.  We toured the milk valley; we saw what was accomplished in certain areas.
We visited communities established for cattlemen in no more than a year. They
are communities made up of 300 homes, as planned when we drafted the plan for
the valley.

36.  However, this was not a ghost town. This community had its buildings,
streets, potable water and sewage systems, day-care centers, day schools, food
and agricultural produce stores, and facilities for the various services needed
by the community. There was a family doctor's office based in the doctor's
home. The site where the community social area will be built had also been set
aside. [applause]

37.  This was an integrated community, and this was not the only one under
construction. They also set out to build and complete necessary facilities in
the communities, such as day-care centers, schools, and homes. This was the
true socialist concept at work, the true concept and full application of
socialist development. Hundreds of kilometers of roads and highways, both
radial and circular--in which the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and
sixth rings begin near Vertientes--have been built. Some of these highways
begin at the southwest and end at the northern end.

38.  Camagueyans, I can assure you that here, in the outskirts of this city, we
are implementing the world's largest milk program and an integrated community
[applause], and that 14,000 caballerias have been organized into a large
production unit. There is nothing similar anywhere else.

39.  It will have almost 550 cattle farms--approximately 540--and hundreds of
other facilities: calf breeding areas, centers for the heifers that will
replace producing cows, centers for the breeding of young bulls, in short, all
the facilities that make up a cattle farming group.

40.  On this project, we have the cooperation of the FAO [Food and Agriculture
Organization], a UN institution, and I know that it is highly pleased with this
program, with the objective of this program, which FAO representatives visit
every month and which the FAO presents as an example of cattle development in a
Third World country. I would add that it is also an example of cattle
development in any First World country. I would like to know if there is any
unit similar to this in the United States, for example. I would like to know if
in Europe, France, or the Netherlands, there is any kind of integrated
production on a scale similar to this project, which will also have all the
necessary laboratories, all the necessary workshops, all the electrical wiring,
and all the irrigation systems that can be built in line with the hydraulic

41.  That is why we can say with satisfaction that we will have here, around
this city, a cattle program that is unique in the world. [applause]

42.  The province has worked intensively for this 26 July in the construction
of dams and minidams. Already this year, rice production will increase by
300,000 quintals, and there are plans to reach 3 million quintals in the
not-too-distant future.

43.  The citrus production plan is advancing. It now involves almost 700
caballerias, and of these, more than 300 have irrigation systems. Production of
tubers and vegetables is advancing. In the past few years, it has multiplied
2.6 times, and that is still not enough. Construction of pig centers, which I
had not mentioned previously, is advancing, and, in the past few years, pork
production has increased by 60 percent. The production of eggs has increased by
40 percent, and poultry production by 60 percent.

44.  This year, despite the drought, milk production is being increased by 11
million liters. We are certain that, given the present effort, the plan to
increase the province's milk production to 300 million liters will be achieved
in the not-too-distant future.

45.  A powdered milk factory is already under construction.  A new cheese
factory with a capacity of over 30,000 liters a day is almost completed, and
new investments will be made in this area.

46.  In the past few years, the number of sheep and goats in the province has
increased 5 times, and on the plains, which were sterile in the past and are
now being developed rapidly, there are already 40,000 of those animals, and we
will not stop until there are 300,000.

47.  This news must be a source of pride for Camaguey residents and a source of
enthusiasm for the province and the country. Some of the experiences gained
during this work are being transferred to other provinces. We are already
implementing an ambitious plan to build livestock facilities--which, although
not as big as this one, are as good in terms of quality--in neighboring Las
Tunas Province. We are now developing a plan just like the one in Las Tunas in
neighboring Ciego de Avila Province. We are already developing a plan similar
to the ones in these two provinces in Granma Province.  This year we are
planning to begin the Sancti Spiritus Province plan, and, if possible, another
major project in Pinar del Rio Province also.

48.  All of the country's provinces are looking for areas in which to implement
their cattle-breeding programs. We are transferring the ideas we developed in
Camaguey to all of the country's provinces. As we told Comrade Lazaro, we
accomplish nothing by just developing this plan in Camaguey Province. We must
develop it--and we are developing it--based on the natural resources of all the
country's provinces. That is why I want to stress that work is not being
carried out in Camaguey alone [applause], but we are working with the same
spirit all over the country. [applause]

49.  These plans require effort, coordination, supplies of heifers. We are
going to build over 200 large- and small-scale cattle-breeding farms every
year. I want you to know, Camaguey residents, that when the process of
rectification began, seven cattle-breeding farms were being built every year.
This is what flirting with capitalist mechanisms led us to. We are doing the
same with schools, children's centers, hospitals, and medical clinics. We are
doing the same with all of the country's economic and social plans. We are
doing the same with the construction of roads and highways. We are doing the
same with our hydraulic capacity.

50.  How has this province achieved this success? Not by luck. From the early
years of the Revolution, Camaguey has been known for its tremendous enthusiasm,
but that alone was not enough. I think the secret to the success of Camaguey
Province's programs is closely related to the party's work and its style of
work in this province.  [applause] It is related to the effort of 37,000 party
militants, 35,000 militant youths, and the massive support of the Camaguey
people. [applause]

51.  Volunteer work in Camaguey, as in the rest of the country, had almost
disappeared. The circumstances I mentioned earlier caused those problems.
Technocrats did not even want to hear about productive work. I ask: Without the
support of the masses and without volunteer work, would it have been possible
to build the more than 1,000 projects that have been inaugurated recently? 

52.  The entire people participated in the construction of communities, in the
construction of the (Siolifa) factory, in the construction of schools, day-care
centers, and housing, and in the construction of the biotechnology building.
The people participated when there was work to be done.

53.  Socialism is the science of leading the people toward the country's
development. It is the science of leading the masses to their direct
participation in the country's development. It is the science of getting the
support of the masses for this great cause.

54.  Socialism is the science of creating, establishing, preserving, and
developing the largest and deepest link between the party and the masses.
Socialism is the science of managing. Socialism is the science of setting the

55.  We have seen very important things these days related to this. Yesterday
when we visited the cheese factory under construction--which will be ready
soon--we saw that people had been doing volunteer work since early in the
morning. All the secretaries of the party in the Sibanicu Municipality
[applause], all members of the people's power, and all the cadres of the mass
organizations did volunteer work. The entire people of Camaguey divided
volunteer work among the total number of residents, including those who were
born in this 1st 6-month period. They each did 25 hours of volunteer work. It
turns out to be a total of 15 million hours of volunteer work. [applause]

56.  That is nearly 2 million 8-hour days. Lazaro was telling me something,
explaining it in the best way possible and which provides the clue to it all.
He told me that all party cadres of the people's power, of the local and
central administration, and of the mass organizations did a minimum of 208
hours of volunteer work in the last 18 months. [applause] It was real and
effective work. They cleaned sugarcane fields, they harvested sugarcane, they
worked in construction, and they worked with their hands. That was a total of
208 hours of well-organized and well-invested work. It is equivalent to 20 days
of over 10 hours each, or more than 25 8-hour days amid the work and
obligations any cadre of the party or of the administration may have.

57.  This is what I call exemplary. [applause] That is truly the revolutionary
road, and that is the truly socialist road capable of leading a people to
attaining any goal; that road is capable of leading a people to the ends of the
earth. I was meditating on how Che [Guevara] might have felt, because he gave
so much importance to volunteer work, and he gave so many examples of personal
dedication to volunteer work.

58.  How would he feel if he could hear this? [prolonged applause] He left us
his example. Volunteer work was at its worst. The rectification process has
raised it to levels never reached before in the history of the Revolution.  For
this reason, despite the untimely rains--they came in the last 2 months of the
harvest instead of coming after the harvest as they should have--Camaguey was
able to produce a million tons of sugar this year [applause]. That is why, by
26 July, Camaguey had already peeled 95 percent of its cane, a figure never
reached before. That is why, despite the drought--and it did truly incalculable
damage--we hope to maintain a respectable level of sugar production in Camaguey
Province, because whatever was humanly possible in the area of planting,
cultivation, and peeling has been done. Of course, a great deal will depend on
how much it rains in the latter part of this month, and particularly in August
and September.

59.  This is a rough outline of the efforts of Camaguey's residents. No one
knows how far we can go by working in this way. However, under what
international conditions are our current efforts occurring? I have to talk a
little about this. It is very important. We need to know where we stand in the
world in which we live and what problems threaten the creative effort of our

60.  We live in a time of great economic problems throughout the world--above
all in the Third World--a time of great economic crises for that world. We are
living through a special moment within the world revolutionary movement. We
will not sugarcoat the truth. We have to call things the way we see them.

61.  There are difficulties in the world revolutionary movement. There are
difficulties in the socialist movements.  We cannot even say with confidence
that the supplies that have arrived from the socialist camp with clock-like
punctuality for the past 30 years will continue to arrive with the same
dependability and clock-like punctuality.

62.  The country has been doing more with less than ever and these projects
demonstrate this. These projects were built with less income than ever before.
It is possible that in the future we will have to continue to work and make an
effort and create miracles with the problems we have in receiving suppplies
from the socialist area.

63.  Perhaps the greatest problem is the euphoria of imperialism, the empire's
cockiness [triunfalista] and that of the empire's administration.

64.  Never has any administration--not even Reagan's-- maintained such
cockiness. No other administration has ever sounded so cocky.

65.  Because of the difficulties that are occurring in the socialist camp,
especially in certain socialist countries, the Bush administration has given
speeches during the past few months which are based on the premise that the
socialist community is nearing its end, that socialism is nearing its end, that
socialism will end up in the garbage can of history, which is the place that
those brilliant and genius strategists and creators of the socialist movement
reserved precisely for capitalism.

66.  Because of the difficulties that are evident and that everyone is aware
of, which have existed and still exist in Poland, because of the difficulties
of socialism which have existed and still exist in Hungary, Bush organized a
triumphant tour, a triumphant trip to these two countries in recent weeks. It
is true that there are difficulties there. He did not go in vain to those
countries. He went to encourage capitalist trends that have developed there and
to encourage the political problems that have arisen there. Some day it will be
the job of historians and scholars to delve deeply into the causes of those
problems. I have my ideas about this; however, this is not the time to talk
about them.

67.  The fact of the matter is that they have difficulties. In recent
elections, the liberal opposition, the pro-capitalist opposition, or, at least,
the antisocialist opposition-- which has not yet defined very well, very well
[repeats himself] what its intentions are--won in the elections for senators
almost 100 percent of the posts. Today, in Poland, even the leader of that
opposition, Mr Walesa-- according to the press in our country--has said to the
government of President Jaruzelski, who won the Presidency by one more vote
than the minimum required, that the best thing to do would be to have the
government turned over to the opposition. In recent days, he has even said that
he does not oppose some members of the opposition being in the government,
however, that they could not count on the support of the opposition.  He said
that the only thing the opposition would accept would be to turn over the

68.  The same thing is occurring in Hungary. One day ago, four delegate posts
were up for elections, and three of them were overwhelmingly won by the

69.  What phenomena are we facing? Is this a peaceful transition from socialism
to capitalism? It is possible.  However, not even us, we do not question it. We
defend the sacred right to the independence of each country and each party.
This is what we ask for the people of the world. That is what we ask for all
the people of Latin America and of the Third World. We ask for the right of
each country to build, if it so desires, socialism, which the United States
tries, by force of arms, so much to prevent. The right of our people to build
socialism, of course no one gave us that right, we earned it, we conquered it,
and we defend it... [incomplete sentence as heard] [applause]

70.  I think many errors have been made which have led to these problems. At
times, I even wonder if it would not be better for those new generations that
were born under socialism in Poland and in Hungary to take a little trip to
capitalism so that they can find out how egoistic, brutal, and dehumanizing a
capitalist society is [pounds on podium three times]. [applause] This is a
delicate matter, but these are our most sincere thoughts about these problems.

71.  During his [Bush's] triumphant trip to Gdansk--a city in Poland, where it
is said that a large crowd received Mr Bush--according to cables of the most
renowned U.S.  press agencies, he was received with many banners. I cannot
confirm if there were many or a few, because I was not there, nor did I see it
on television. I read it on the cables. It was reported that many banners read:
The Best Communist is a Dead Communist. Notice, those are the feelings of a
fascist! The banners which welcomed Bush in that Polish city were completely
fascist. Naturally, there are two kinds of communists: those who let themselves
get killed easily, and communists who do not let ourselves get killed easily!

72.  It was with joy that cables of the imperialist agencies narrated that
other banners read: Lenin, Jaruzelski-- Assassins. I will not defend
Jaruzelski. I think he can defend himself. However, what does this mean, in a
city of a country whose freedom cost the lives of one-half million Soviet
soldiers? I am even setting aside the errors in international policy that, at
other times, the Soviet Union could have made regarding Poland. I simply
reiterate the real fact that one-half million Soviets died fighting next to the
Polish people for the freedom of Poland--and now Lenin is called an assassin,
the founder of the first socialist state. He made the first great opening for
the people of the world. He was the founder of the first socialist state, whose
revolution made possible the disappearance of colonialism. Over 100 states have
attained independence, over 100 former colonies attained independence. How
repugnant it is to call Lenin an assassin--whose people achieved victory
against fascism with the sacrifice of 22 million deaths among its best
children. This is truly bitter.

73.  However, this increases Mr Bush's euphoria. It increases his false pride.
It increases the imperialist hostility against Cuba a lot. If Mr Bush bases
himself on the premise that socialism is on its decline, that the socialist
community is going to disintegrate, what does he think regarding Cuba, this
firm, courageous, heroic Cuba? This is a Cuba that does not surrender or sell
itself. If one bases policy on that premise, why change the policy toward Cuba?
He is carrying out a peace policy with the great powers and is waging war
against the progressive peoples. He is carrying out the policy based on the
premise that, if socialism ever disintegrates, Cuba would not be able to
resist, the Cuban Revolution would disappear. That reasoning increases the
aggressive spirit and the hostility of Yankee imperialism against our people,
revolution, fatherland. These are truths. That is why, today, the empire
appears more insolent, wicked, and threatening than ever before.

74.  Just imagine, what would happen in the world if the socialist community
disappeared? According to that hypothesis, if that was possible, which I do not
think it is, the imperialist powers would throw themselves like beasts over the
Third World. They would once again distribute the world among themselves, as in
the worst of times, before the first proletariat revolution. They would
distribute among themselves the oil, natural resources, and the human resources
of billions of people in the world. They would once again turn three-quarters
of humanity into colonies. However, not even under those circumstances would
the struggle cease [pounds three times on podium]. The peoples would never
accept it.  The peoples would continue fighting, perhaps now more than ever,
and our people, our fatherland, our revolution would be in the first row of
that fight. [applause] [Crowd chants and claps.]

75.  Naturally, imperialism has deluded itself, and Bush has deluded himself
because of the difficulties that are experienced by the Soviet Union, the
fundamental bulwark of the socialist community. It is true that the USSR is
facing difficulties. It is not a secret to anyone, and the dream of the
imperialists is that the USSR will disintegrate. There are difficulties, and
they are growing. There are tensions among the nationalities within the USSR. 
There are tensions and conflicts. The internal tensions are evident within the
USSR, and we have witnessed the strike of hundreds of millions, hundreds of
thousands, hundreds of thousands [repeats himself] of miners, of strikers in
Siberia, Don [as heard], and other places. That kind of news fills world
reactionaries with joy. That kind of news fills the empire with joy.

76.  We recently received a very warm, very fraternal message from the USSR in
the name of the Soviet party, the government, and the state. Our feelings of
friendship with the Soviet people and our recognition of the role of that great
country are enormous. You know that. Our appreciation of that country, of that
country [repeats himself] is also enormous. Our most fervent desire is that the
Soviets will overcome their difficulties, reconstruct their unity, and maintain
and elevate the great role that that country has played in the world.

77.  The problems in the USSR greatly concern all Third World countries, the
old colonies, those peoples who do not want to be colonized again because the
USSR was their fundamental and most firm ally. Upon seeing these problems, the
imperialist circles dream of an empire lasting 1,000 years, as Adolf Hitler
dreamed that his Third Reich would last 1,000 years, and it lasted a very short

78.  It is possible that the most reactionary imperialist circles are having
these dreams again. I am sure that these dreams will not last very long. This
is not a matter of nuclear arms or missiles on one side or the other, or a
matter of nuclear disarmament accords--which make us very happy. However, the
independence of our people depends on us. It is not dependent upon nuclear
weapons from the Soviet Union or from anyone else.

79.  I remember the October crisis, and a saying that appeared then: We do not
have strategic weapons, but we have moral weapons. Those are the arms with
which the peoples defend themselves. I believe in the people. I believe in the
people more than ever, as I believe in my people. [applause]

80.  I know their capabilities. I know our people's capabilities. And here,
reasoning things out very dispassionately, as one has to reason with the
people.... [changes thought] On a day like today, at a historic moment like the
one that the world is experiencing today, we have to think; we have to reason.

81.  Are we by any chance going to put a halt to our progress?  Are we going to
halt this colossal effort? No, never. Are we going to close our eyes to
reality? Are we going to bury our heads in the sand like ostriches in the face
of reality?  No, never. We need to be more realistic than ever, but we have to
speak out. We have to warn the imperialists that they not create so many
illusions in reference to our revolution and in reference to the idea that our
revolution will not be able to resist a debate within the socialist community.
If we were to wake up tomorrow or any other day to the news that there had been
a large-scale civil war in the USSR, and even if we were to wake up and learn
that the USSR had disintegrated--something that we hope never happens--even
under those circumstances, Cuba and the Cuban Revolution would continue
struggling and resisting. [rhythmic clapping] Cuba and the Cuban Revolution
would resist. I say this knowingly.  I say this calmly and serenely, and with
all the control in the world. It is time to speak clearly to the imperialists
and to the entire world.

82.  We are not joking. What can frighten us if 27, or 28 years ago, we
experienced the October crisis? Historians are compiling papers and giving
their versions. We have not yet provided our version. We did go to a meeting
over in Moscow where there were American personages of the time, some Soviets,
and some Cubans. We have not yet provided our version, nor have we taken out
our little papers--and we do have some.

83.  One thing is obvious. We lived through those times, and I do not remember
seeing a single Cuban hesitate. The Cubans refused to make any concessions to
imperialism, and the Cubans of that generation--a large number of whom are
still living and who have been joined by new generations that are well trained
and that have great political awareness--were prepared to die without
hesitation--to die rather than retreat [applause], to die rather than yield.
[prolonged applause]

84.  What can frighten our revolutionary people? Nothing in the world can
frighten our revolutionary people or cause them to hesitate. A long time ago--a
little more than 8 years ago--Mr Reagan spouted great threats against Cuba. We
have put aside all the little academic books on war. We do lean on all positive
experiences, all the experiences in conventional war, and we have adopted the
doctrine of the defense of the country, and the concept of a war involving all
the people. Everyone knows what that concept is and everyone shares that

85.  It is the philosophy of what our country will do under any circumstances,
of what it will do in the event of a total blockade, when not even a liter of
fuel or a morsel of food can enter the country. What would we do then?  We know
very well what we would do, and we know we could resist. In the event of war or
of being worn out, we know what we would do, and we know how we would resist.
In the event of invasion or occupation of the country by Yankee troops, we know
how we could resist, how we could fight, and what we would do. We know that
sooner or later, the price would be so high for the aggressors that they would
have to leave our country, sooner or later. [applause]

86.  As for our defense, we learned a long time ago how to count only on our
own strength. We know that in the event of a total blockade--when not even a
liter of fuel or a morsel of food or even one bullet could enter the
country--the USSR would not have the conventional forces to break that blockade
thousands of miles from its borders. No country can trust its defense to
another country. A country can only trust its defense to itself.

87.  Therefore, our minds, our ideas, our concepts are prepared and developed.
Do you think we are losing sleep?  Do you think we are filled with uncertainty
over all these scenarios, these hypothetical situations? Let them [the
imperialists] clear the cobwebs from their minds. We know who we are, what we
have, what we can do; we know what we can count on.

88.  Therefore, we are at ease. Not even the worst scenario, the worst
hypothesis scares us. Since we live in this world and on this planet, we must
be aware of the realities, and we must think over the realities. There will be
threats in the future as a result of this imperialist policy, these beliefs,
this idea that socialism is declining, and that the time is right to exact from
Cuba the price of more than 30 years of revolution. No price will be exacted

89.  This is nothing new. This has been going on for a long time. [19th century
revolutionary hero Antonio] Maceo once said that this would happen to anyone
who tried to take over Cuba. This is the people, this is the country, and this
is the people of [19th century independence hero Carlos Manuel de] Cespedes and
of [independence hero Jose] Marti. [applause] This is the country, the same
country, the same people of [19th century patriot from Camaguey Ignacio]
Agramonte [applause] and [19th century independence hero] Maximo Gomez.

90.  This is the same country and the same people of the bronze titan, Antonio
Maceo [applause]. This is the same country and the same people of Yara [name
given to the first declaration of independence] and of Bayamo, of the protest
from Baragua [applause]. This is the same country and the same people. From the
Moncada Barracks [applause] to internationalism [applause], we all now have a
greater revolutionary awareness than ever before in our history. This people
and this country will know how to be consistent with their glorious history!
Fatherland or death, we shall win! [applause and cheers]