Latin American Network Information Center - LANIC

Castro Dedicates Five Construction Plants
Havana Cubavision Network
BRS Assigned Document Number:    000000713
Report Type:         Daily Report             AFS Number:     FL0901160090
Report Number:       FBIS-LAT-90-007          Report Date:    10 Jan 90
Report Series:       Daily Report             Start Page:     12
Report Division:     CARIBBEAN                End Page:       21
Report Subdivision:  Cuba                     AG File Flag:   
Classification:      UNCLASSIFIED             Language:       Spanish
Document Date:       30 Dec 89
Report Volume:       Wednesday Vol VI No 007


City/Source of Document:   Havana Cubavision Network

Report Name:   Latin America

Headline:   Castro Dedicates Five Construction Plants

Author(s):   President Fidel Castro during dedication ceremony of five
construction material plants at the Major Jesus Raul Diaz Sosa
Ceramic Factory in Managua , Havana City, on 29

Source Line:   FL0901160090 Havana Cubavision Network in Spanish 2133 GMT 30
Dec 89

Subslug:   [Speech by President Fidel Castro during dedication ceremony of five
construction material plants at the Major Jesus Raul Diaz Sosa
Ceramic Factory in Managua, Havana City, on 29 December--recorded]

1.  [Speech by President Fidel Castro during dedication ceremony of five
construction material plants at the Major Jesus Raul Diaz Sosa Ceramic Factory
in Managua, Havana City, on 29 December--recorded]

2.  [Text] Comrades: A few weeks ago we dedicated the Roberto Milian factory in
San Miguel del Padron. That factory has several cement block production lines,
which are also used to make roof blocks. The only difference between regular
cement blocks and roof blocks is that different molds are used for the latter.
Roof blocks are very similar to regular blocks, but they are used with other
structural elements not only to build walls, but also roofs. I am looking at
someone who does not know much about this. We should see if there is someone
else around here. [laughter] [Passage indistinct] a factory of floor beams,
which are light beams up to 7 meters long and which are used with the roof
blocks to build roofs. Right?  They are mainly used to build roofs?

3.  [Unidentified speaker] It is used to build floors between the various
levels of a building.

4.  [Castro] Isn't that still a roof?

5.  [Unidentified speaker] No.

6.  [Castro] What is it then?

7.  [Unidentified speaker] [words indistinct]

8.  [Castro] I know the roof for one floor is the floor for the upper level.
The roof of the last floor will be the final roof.

9.  [Unidentified speaker] Of course.

10.  [Castro] Of course.

11.  [Unidentified speaker] The roof of the ground floor is the floor of the
first floor.

12.  [Castro] I could also build a one-story house with floor beams and roof
blocks. How much do these people know about construction? [laughter]

13.  The factory I mentioned earlier has roof block production lines, a floor
beam production line, and three regular cement block production lines. Regular
cement blocks are used to build walls. You should never use it to build roofs.
[laughter] The factory also manufactures terrazzo tiles. I did not know much
about this tile. I am going to tell you what it is because perhaps many of you
do not know about it either. These tiles are used to make steps for stairs;
they are made of granite and they look beautiful in buildings designed for
social purposes. That factory produces 30,000 square meters of terrazzo tiles
per year. A mosaic tile factory is now under construction and should be
completed soon.

14.  That is the first construction material industry that has become an
industrial contingent and it is working perfectly well.  This movement was
started virtually spontaneously by the workers themselves. They were working in
two shifts, with many interruptions, and they had a scanty work force. Thus,
they began to prolong their working hours and they began to follow the
contingent work style. These are quite mechanized and automated factories.

15.  We were watching today some of these cement block production lines and we
noted that all the worker needs to do is just to check and to observe the
entire proccess.  Everything is automatically run, it is just a matter of
pushing buttons. Thus, [words indistinct] right now I can see each cement block
production line is already working almost as a contingent, almost all of them
in cement block production lines. This work does not require a physical effort,
but it causes tension because the worker must pay attention, and there is noise
caused by the machines. I was asking if there should not be some protection
against the noise. I was told that that is a standard rule, but the workers
should also be able to listen to the noises because a small sound could alert
them to a malfunction.

16.  Well, a few weeks have elapsed since the dedication of that factory where
the first contingent was created.  Today, we just dedicated five new factories.
We could say five new [rephrases] several of them are industrial complexes
because they produce several items. The first factory we dedicated is located
in La Lisa, near Punta Brava. It consists of three very modern cement block
production lines, of the type I mentioned earlier. How many mosaic production
lines does it have? So, it has two mosaic production lines. That industrial
complex is already in operation.

17.  In (Bajeda), near the highway going east, toward Banado, toward Habana del
Este--virtually across from Habana del Este, in a valley to the right--we
dedicated a factory, that is, not an industrial complex, of two mosaic
production lines.  This factory will produce mosaic.

18.  The third factory we dedicated is located in Guanabacoa. This factory also
has two mosaic production lines. It also has a cement coating paint. The
construction of three cement block production lines is also under way there.
This is the type of project we will seek to complete by 26 July. Today, we were
discussing the need to build there a floor beam production line similar to the
one built in San Miguel del Padron. It seems as though we will be needing
larger quantities of floor beams than what we are producing now, because the
builders say that in maintenance and reconstruction work [passage indistinct].
We have an expert in this field. Maximo. You know about this, Maximo. Why don't
you come over here and help me explain the importance of the floor beam
production lines?

19.  [Speaker, identified only as Maximo] Commander, we were saying that in the
first place because....

20.  [Castro, interrupting] For instance, there is an old building.

21.  [Maximo] An old building?

22.  [Castro] In Habana Vieja or Centro Habana Vieja.

23.  [Maximo] In any of those places, a four-story building. If we are going to
repair any of those buildings we will have to demolish the floors. Thus, the
basic structure of the building may be left untouched. The buildings of Habana
Vieja have a trademark. They are old buildings that are supported by floor
beams and [word indistinct] but which are made of lumber. The lumber generally
rots [passage indistinct]. When one is going to rebuild this type of building
[passage indistinct].

24.  [Castro] You frame what?

25.  [Maximo] We frame [words indistinct] where the floors were earlier and we
secure a board against the walls. This is what we do today. In those cases

26.  [Castro, interrupting] So, that takes a lot of lumber.

27.  [Maximo] Yes, it takes a lot of lumber and a lot of work as well because
it is very difficult to do a melting job in those areas. In general, we have to
cupola-melt in those cases. If we are trying to repair a monument, what do we
do? We also use lumber. If we have some hardwood lumber, we would just replace
the damaged part or build some concrete beams that we finish in such a way that
they look as though they are made of wood. We do it the old way, but we use
cement, which also takes a lot of work because we have to melt the sheet right
there. In addition to taking a lot of lumber, this is a very difficult job. We
have to make a great effort to do this.

28.  When we are using beams, what we do is stick the beams into the walls, we
lay the roof blocks, and then we melt the coating.

29.  [Castro] You put the beam first.

30.  [Maximo] We put the beam...

31.  [Castro, interrupting] Then you lay the roof blocks.

32.  [Maximo] Then, we lay the roof blocks, and then we melt the sheet and then
the coating is ready. We really save ourselves a lot of work and we save....

33.  [Castro, interrupting] How much lumber [words indistinct]?

34.  [Maximo] Well, commander, I cannot give you overall figures....

35.  [Castro, interrupting] [Words indistinct] 50 percent or 80 percent.

36.  [Maximo] No, commander....

37.  [Castro, interrupting] [Words indistinct] percent of the lumber that is
needed to do a melting job there.

38.  [Maximo] In this case, we use lumber only to support the beam. These
pieces of lumber are removed later and can be used again. They are fully
recovered. It is not the same when you are chipping a concrete structure and
supporting it with lumber, in that case you lose a fair amount of lumber. These
pieces of lumber can be used 5, 6, 7, 10 or 15 times, depending on how you use
them.  You will always, however, be losing a percentage of it.

39.  [Castro] [Words indistinct] but you also use them for new buildings.

40.  [Maximo] For new buildings.

41.  [Castro] You are also saving lumber in those cases.

42.  [Maximo] Yes, and they may also be used in any type of social project.

43.  [Castro] In any type of social project?

44.  [Maximo] Especially in those nontypical buildings.

45.  [Castro] And you do not have to use cranes.

46.  [Maximo] Besides, we do not have to use cranes when we use beams and roof

47.  [Castro] Thus, we have only one plant that can produce the equivalent of
1,000 km.

48.  [Maximo] Around 1,000 km.

49.  [Castro] Beams are measured in kilometers.

50.  [Maximo] That will be enough to build 7,000 or 8,000 houses.

51.  [Castro] 7,000 or 8,000 houses? Let us assume that we use it to build new
houses. We will need it more, however, to repair buildings.

52.  [Maximo] We will need it to repair buildings and to build social projects.
We have built a number of day care centers with beams and roof blocks, as well
as bakeries....

53.  [Castro, interrupting] Also with beams?

54.  [Maximo] Also with beams.

55.  [Castro] It is also more productive....

56.  [Maximo, interrupting] It is, of course, much more productive than using

57.  [Castro, interrupting] And it allows you to save all the lumber that was
needed to prepare for the melting job.

58.  [Maximo] And it allows us to save all the lumber we used to need for the
melting job. Thus, it is truly an advanced method that allows us to make
savings and that makes our job easier. It also improves the workers'

59.  [Castro] Yes. We now must increase production. We have a large quantity of
regular blocks, and what we ought to do is just change the molds and produce
roof blocks instead of regular blocks.

60.  I was saying that we are going to build another factory of roof blocks
there in Guanabacoa so that we may have a production capability of at least
2,000 km. Thus, this technique is very useful and advantageous, as Comrade
Maximo was explaining here. We have also sent beams and roof blocks to
Varadero, where we are building (?towers). [passage indistinct].

61.  We were already talking with the ministry about the need to purchase a
second production line and, when this one arrives, we should purchase a third
one. We must turn to those things that will be more instrumental in solving our
problems. Well, that was one of the factories dedicated today.

62.  Then, we dedicated the Las Guasimas industrial complex, which consists of
two mosaic production lines and of three regular cement block production lines.
This is an industrial complex. Is there something else there? It already has
the cement coating factory. This is something we are all beginning to know
about. It is based on white cement and other products. It lasts a long time. In
our country, paint coatings do not last a long time due to humidity and
nitrate, especially in Havana City. Thus, it is very useful for us to have
cement coating. We can use cement coatings to paint many buildings, especially
the new ones. To use it with the old buildings we must first scrape off the old
paint. We can also use cement coating to paint prefabricated panels.

63.  We are going to have the necessary raw materials to make the cement
coating, at least the most important one, because it requires other ingredients
in small supplies. I am referring to the white cement factory that started to
operate a few months ago in Siboney, which can produce 100,000 tons of white
cement. By 31 December, they expect to produce 25,000 or 30,000 tons--that is,
in just a few months. For next year, they plan to produce 50,000 or 60,000
tons, but I am sure that if it became necessary, they could produce more than
that. We are going to have some surplus of white cement, which we could export
if we do not need it.

64.  Our construction materials industry is not designed to promote exports,
but to meet our needs. White cement is used to make floor tiles, mosaic tiles,
sanitary ware, bathroom tiles. It is used for a variety of things. The cost of
white cement on the international market ranges from $110 to $120 or $130 per
ton plus freight costs. Thus, a white cement plant capable of producing 100,000
tons entails a production that will cost more than $10 million if we were to
import this quantity.

65.  We also receive some white cement from the socialist bloc. The quality of
white cement is determined by [words indistinct], which is measured in grades.
The technology used in the plant we bought [changes thought] and the raw
material used there still has a little kaolin, some yeast, but it was (?87)
percent pure, what do we call this? Yes, of whiteness. This is already a high
percentage. Thus, our cement already has good quality, but we expect to reach
90 percent, and when we reach this percentage our cement will be among the
highest quality cement in the world. Thus, we will have every raw material we
need to produce cement coating.

66.  Now, we are building this cement factory, which is one of the most modern
ones in the country. Nearly all the cement was produced [corrects himself] no,
it is not cement; but bricks. Nearly all the bricks produced in the country
were manufactured in makeshift ovens, in which it was very difficult to have
good quality and which required great sacrifice from the workers. This does not
mean that we are going to close down those makeshift ovens. We are improving
them. We are improving working conditions there. We cannot afford to close
anything at this time. We must continue to use the bricks we were producing, as
well as the new ones we are now going to produce.

67.  This plant can produce 30 million bricks of all types per year. These will
be good quality bricks. The quality of bricks does not depend on the facilities
alone but also on the raw material. On this side here we have the raw material
which is of excellent quality. For instance, the clay of Sancti Spiritus, the
clay of Pinar del Rio, the clay of San Cristobal--where a roof tile factory is
being built--are among those having the best quality.

68.  We have a large reserve of minerals and we can bring clay from other
areas. I believe that [words indistinct] 25 or 35 percent of the clay that you
can see there and which is redder, to mix it with the clay available here and
thus seek to produce a good quality brick. We cannot expect to produce brick of
excellent quality, as we could get with other types of clay, but at least of
good quality, of the quality we need.

69.  These five brand new factories, plus the one we dedicated earlier, have
brought to six the number of factories built in record time. As you know, our
headache, as we resuscitated the mini-brigades, was to provide construction
materials --all that is needed to boost construction.  A few years ago, we
could not build because we did not have a work force. Now we have resolved the
work force problem through the various types of minibrigades: Of factories, of
work centers, social minibrigades like the ones organized in this area, like
the one we have in the Las Guasimas township--I should say the city of Las
Guasimas because it is going in that direction. With the overall work force
represented by the 38,000 minibrigades, we can not only build, but also engage
in repair work. These minibrigades consist primarily of workers but also of
housewives who have joined this effort in certain areas, especially
minibrigades engaged in social projects. Youths who were neither studying nor
working have also joined this work force. Thus, we have a tremendous work force
in the construction sector in the capital--and we could have more if we want

70.  Even industrial minibrigades, such as those of the Ministry of the
Steelworking Industry, have been created.  Thousands of workers of various
industries are building facilities such as dining rooms, administrative-social
buildings, lockers for the workers, that is, these and some enlargement work
designed to improve conditions.

71.  We have an enourmous work force and our headache was to obtain
construction materials. Then, we set out to obtain the materials we needed and
to take whatever action that might become necessary to do so. In a little over
2 years, we have invested almost... [rephrases] In 2 and  years we have
invested dozens of millions of dollars in industrial lines for the production
of construction materials. We had to purchase all the equipment from Western
countries. We used to obtain them from socialist countries, but they were
urgently needed and we had no other way of getting them but by using
convertible currency.  Thus, we have bought dozens and dozens of lines. I
believe that in the city of Havana alone we had 51 lines, city and province
included, of course. To this we must add dozens and dozens of lines established
in the provinces. We have bought them and have installed them at full speed.

72.  I remember that we completed our first day care center plan with what we
had. We said then that we were going to resolve this problem. There are, of
course, problems that are more easily solved than others. To buy and to install
a cement block production line is not so difficult.  The line is neither very
expensive nor is it very difficult to build the facility for it. This is not
(?like building) a cement factory. We had a large capability for producing
cement. We had created those conditions. Yet, during those years in which
construction declined--I am not going to repeat to you other things
here--maintenance of cement factories also declined and they started to lose
their capability. Thus, when this construction movement started, our cement
production was at around 3.2 million [words indistinct].

73.  It has increased during these years to 3.4, to 3.5, to around 3.7 this
year, that is, 3,750,000 tons. Thus, our production of cement has increased by
more than half a million tons. We have designed plans to restore the
capabilities we have lost, that is, to rebuild some of our industries. We have
also formulated plans to build new cement production lines. We wanted to locate
them, in the first place, in the eastern provinces, in the area of Holguin. The
eastern provinces--which in the past we knew only by the name of the eastern
region, and where more than 40 percent of the Cuban population reside-- had
only one cement factory, the one located in Santiago de Cuba, which was
somewhat enlarged during the early years of the revolution.

74.  A cement factory should, of course, be built in an area where the raw
material needed is available. It cannot be built anywhere but in an area where
adequate raw material is readily available. One of the first factories built by
the revolution was the one in Siboney. There is a good supply of raw material
in the central region of the country. That is where we are also producing white
cement. Another important factory is located in Cienfuegos, where there is also
a port. A factory was built there not far from the port. It is a large factory
that was built jointly with the GDR.

75.  Then, we enlarged the Mariel factory, which was built with Spanish
technology. We also enlarged the Artemisa factory with French-made equipment.
Thus, in theory, we were capable of producing around 5 million tons, perhaps a
little more. But, the truth is that when we started to force production by
these factories, they began to have problems of all kinds. According to
calculations made 3 years ago, we should produce 5.4 million by 1990. We were
not going to reach this goal because our industrial facilities were not
prepared for it. [Words indistinct] we have to make a great effort regarding
cement. We asked workers, we gave them some support, equipment, and reached the
figure of 3,750,000 tons. We also decided to invest $15 million in remodeling
the Mariel cement factory, which was producing between 130,000 and 150,000 tons
with many problems, to make it produce 1,200,000 or to 1,250,000 tons, that is,
to increase its production capability by 400,000 tons.

76.  For next year, 1990, we are planning to produce 3.9 million tons with what
we have. That is to say, 150,000 more tons than this year. The production
capacity for 1991 looks even better, because by mid-year, by the second
semester of next year, when we have all the equipment and materials there, we
will proceed into two phases: The expansion and the reconstruction of Mariel. 
We will try to make sure this will not take more than 2 months to do, because
every month the plant is not in operation, approximately 70,000 tons of cement
is not produced. Every month that the [word indistinct] is not operating, we
loose that amount. Naturally, as soon as the new equipment is installed, it
will be expanded and remodeled and it will have an additional capacity for
production. That is why by 1991, we will have an additional production capacity
of 400,000 tons of cement.

77.  I will explain to you why I am giving you these figures.  [passage
indistinct] Naturally, the new lines of production that were going to be
installed were: One in Santiago de Cuba, two in Holguin, and possibly one more
in Artemisa and one more in Ciguaney. We were negotiating all this. We had made
a lot of progress. We had negotiated two lines with the GDR. We were
negotiating other lines with the CSSR. We were negotiating another one with
Romania. There were at least four, four to five lines we were negotiating. Now
there have been a lot of changes in those countries. No one can have the
certainty that [words indistinct] the possibilities for negotiating those
lines. So, the cement production plans we had carefully elaborated, now we have
these [word indistinct]. However, we will have the cement; that is the good
thing. We will have 150,000 more tons in 1990 and approximately 300,000 or
400,000 more tons in 1991.

78.  We will have to work at the Carlos Marx plant, which already has a high
production level, and it is estimated that it will produce 1,170,000 tons. The
enterprise has already made a great effort this year to try fulfill and
overfulfill its plan this year. [Words indistinct] but the production capacity
of that plant, if you provide it everything it needs--all the appropriate parts
and if some repairs were done there--it could produce 300,000 more tons. Maybe
(?our) country could supply [word indistinct] the plant. However, we are also
looking into what other country could supply it if our country cannot do it,
even if it means spending convertible currency. We are examining this. We are
also examining the possibility of our country producing other parts that
factory may need so that it can produce approximately 1.5 million tons of
cement. That is another path for quickly obtaining cement. This would mean an
additional 700,000 tons between 1991 and 1992.

79.  Naturally, we have also given the steelworking industry the task of
producing the first line of cement built in Cuba. We already build our own
sugarcane plants, we build over 60 percent of the plant. We built the [words
indistinct]. We even build boilers. One always has to buy an electric generator
of a certain size, a certain number of engines to move the [word indistinct].
We have built several sugarcane plants that have been working perfectly well
from the very first year. We are building rolling mills to produce
reinforcement rods, like the two that we have built in Las Tunas. Those are
also complex machines. We have even partially built the continuous [word
indistinct] machines which we are being inaugurated in the old workshop of
Antillana. If we can do all this, there is no doubt that our steelworking
industry with a certain amount of support, with the acquisition of some larger
furnaces--because some of the larger ones they have are for 12 tons, and when
they have to melt a 17 or 18 ton piece they have to use two furnaces which is
very complex, difficult... [does not complete previous sentence] We were
thinking about installing some 24 ton furnaces. We have good lathes for those
pieces. [Word indistinct] each time a greater number of automatic lathes. Our
country can already produce the plans for automatic lathes, it produces some of
the parts for an automatic lathes. If it can already produce parts of this
type, what it needs now is steel and machines to work the steel.

80.  We will always have to buy something. One country cannot produce
everything. It always has to buy engines of one type or another. However, the
basic parts for a factory can be built by the country. Maybe one of the small
advantages [words indistinct] is to give an impetus to the development of
country's industries. A line of cement of that type costs no less than 50 or
$60 million.  Even if we have to acquire some things, we can maybe make our own
cement line (?for) 20 percent or so less than what a complete cement line

81.  I have spoken about the great importance of cement.  How have we managed?
How is it that construction has grown so much in the past 2 years? [passage
indistinct] Why will it grow again by approximately 250 million more next year,
despite the fact that our cement production will only be 150,000 tons more? It
is simply a matter of economizing cement. In economizing cement, two or three
lines are (?involved). Now we have to [words indistinct]. We used to waste
cement in an incredible manner. There were projects that used over 700 kg per
cubic meter of concrete. We do not even know how much cement was used in 1985.
Some of our figures show that it was higher than 700 kg. This year, the
Ministry of Construction [MICONS] has used less than 450 kg per cubic meter of
concrete. Concrete uses a certain amount of cement, stone, sand, and water.
This year the MICONS has used less than 450 kg, and by next year it plans to
reduce it to 400 kg or less. Cement is very important, and not just the amounts
but the type and quality of cement it is. [Words indistinct] for stronger more
resistant constructions. There are some constructions that have to be done with
P-250 cement and not P-350, so different types of cement are used accordingly. 
When the factory produces another type of cement, it can produce more cement.
In other words, it is very important to use the right amount and type of
cement.  We are making progress in that area. The MICONS was one of the
organizations that economized the most this year.

82.  We are working with all the construction organizations to reduce the
consumption of cement. We are working with the construction workers of the
people's government, with the minibrigades, sugar industry, basic industry,
Ministry of Agriculture--everyone builds here.  We are also planning to save an
additional 150,000 tons of cement with a great effort; these would be
additional tons to the ones we have already saved this year. If we attain a
production of an additional 150,000 tons, and if we economize another 150,000
tons elsewhere, that equals 300,000 tons of cement available.

83.  There is another area in which we can economize. We have already started
working in that area. Naturally, it is not as pressing. It is the area of
projects with exaggerated standards. In the past few years we made the mistake
of using standards that are not adequate to our conditions.  They were
exaggerated standards which required the use of huge amounts of cement in the
foundations of the plants. So, by working the way we are doing now and by
trying to economize the way we do now, we can save a lot of cement. Some of the
comrades at the Ministry of the Sugar Industry have done studies which show
that 30 percent cement can be saved in building a sugar plant.  We are also
building a large dam at the Cauto River.  According to the plan, which was
formulated abroad, 250,000 cubic meters of concrete would be needed to build an
underground wall. Our technicians studied the matter carefully and they reached
the conclusion that building the wall has nothing to do with the strength of
the dam, but rather with the nature of the land. They said the wall can be
built with 100,000 cubic meters and not with 250,000 cubic meters of concrete.
Now you see how, by putting some thought into it, any project can economize

84.  A comrade from Artemisa spoke at the National Assembly. He wanted to
install a light pole. He needed to do the foundation. The technician who was
distributing the cement told him he needed 44 sacks of cement. Then, I do not
know what the man from Artemisa did. He looked into it, he researched it well.
He was able to solve the problem with half the cement they were recommending
for the installation of the light pole. Some examples have been given to show
how much cement can be saved in the [word indistinct] plans. Naturally, if a
construction worker is told that a 20,000 cubic meter foundation must be built,
he uses what the plan stipulates. However, it may be possible to do it with
10,000.  At the Antillana expansion, the plans stipulated exaggerated the
amounts of cement. The planners have gradually decreased the amounts. This is
another way of economizing of cement. There were approximately two or three
lines in the economizing of cement. [sentence as heard]

85.  If we want to continue increasing considerably constructions in the next
few years, we will have to economize cement as well as wood, which is always a
critical material. This year we had more constructions with less wood. Next
year we will have 250 million pesos more worth of construction with less wood.
We used to throw wood away--28 cubic meters of concrete per cubic meter of
wood. Already this year we have raised it to more than 40, we plan to raise it
to 100. We plan to increase the use of wood by 3, 4, and 5 times. We plan to
preserve it with a sealing coat, with a raw material that is accessible and
cheap. We plan to protect the edges with light metal (?lamination) to be able
to use it 15, 20, 30 times. We plan to use it as (?panels) for foundations so
they can be used many times. We used to use them only two or three times. I
have seen panels made out of [word indistinct] that were given some protection
and which have been used again in the construction of a market over there in
the western part of the capital. They have been used over 20 times. Do you
realize how wood can be saved? The amount of wood available in the country for
construction does not increase. However, what can be increased many times is
the use we make of that wood. So, we are working in this manner.

86.  I also trust in our cement line. A lot of effort is already being made so
we can have our first line with a capacity of 300,000 tons. We will see if by
1992 that line is already operating. We have 2 and  years to design it, build
the equipment--and, while the equipment is being built in one area, in another
it will be installed. We will be building the civil portion of that factory. We
will build the Holguin factory. We will not give up the contracts we were
working on, the negotiations that were moving along. However, this is what is
certain, and there is nothing more certain than what we can do ourselves. If we
have been capable of accomplishing others tasks, why should we not be able to
do this? And I am certain that the steelworking industry will solve the
problem. Right now they are working with a group of people dedicated to that
task. As soon as we see that the first task is working well, we will begin with
our second and third ones. This country will not lack cement for any reason, if
we do the expansion. I told you that we spent a full $15 million for the
expansion of Mariel. We can also expand the Carlos Marx, and we can do it by
economizing in various areas.  We can also increase production levels. This is
how we plan to resolve this important problem of cement. There is no longer a
problem with the reinforcement rods.  Starting next year, the (IBC) [no further
explanation given] at the old Antillana workshop will increase its steel
production by 100,000 per year. By the end of 1990, we plan to finish the first
[word indistinct] machine for the Antillana expansion.

87.  Yesterday we met with the contingent that received its banner, which has
almost 2,000 men and will work on the accelerated expansion of Antillana.
Almost all the equipment is there.

88.  It is now a matter of installing all that iron. That plant was going to
produce 200,000 tons of steel. Now with the expansion it will produce 440,000
tons. It has approximately $8 million invested in technological equipment. 
This doubles the planned production level of the plant which [word indistinct]
approximately $300 million. So, the huge plant will not produce more than
double of what it was going to produce before. We told the workers of the Julio
Antonio Mella contingent: Your task is to build this at full speed, with the
speed and quality with which contingents build. This will increase our
country's steel production to almost 1 million tons. This will be achieved with
all the (IBC) that were installed at the old and new workshops.

89.  Just think about the reinforcement rods we will also be saving, because
when you save cement you also save reinforcement rods. Do not forget that it is
not the same thing to use 20,000 cubic meters of cement than to use 10,000. You
also save half the amount of reinforcement rods. The production level of Las
Tunas will reach 300,000 tons of reinforcement rods and steel materials for
construction. The Antillana industry will also produce materials for the
mechanical industry. It will produce special types of steel, not just for
construction.  Antillana will also produce different types of steel for our
mechanical industry, which is developing quickly.

90.  These are three important elements: Cement, wood, and reinforcement rods.
The rest [words indistinct] a very special effort is being made in production
of floors, mosaics, tiles, walls, and others, floor firebricks, roofs, in
addition to something we saw yesterday. It is called [word indistinct] cement.
I do not know why it is called that. [words indistinct] I saw it. They made for
us two separate small amounts of cement. One was this cement by Acevedo, who is
the man who invented it. They put the cement in two little holes. They poured
water in it, and the water just stayed there. It didn't go anywhere.  They did
the same thing with the traditional cement.  They poured water on it, and in a
matter of 1 minute, the cement soaked up all the water. This [word indistinct]
cement, in addition to repelling water, can be kept in warehouses up to 2
years. This technique was invented there. We are testing it. It could help a
lot in the building of roofs. It can be used for the roofs so they don't rot,
because you know this is one of the most serious problems we have had. The
various products we have used, considering our climate, have not given all the
results we had hoped. In addition to this, we had the problems with those
covers, we didn't have the necessary quality. Thus, we were forced to look at
the noble and old kind of tile we had used in the past. Another consideration
is the angle that each roof must have. There was a time here when the crazy
idea of the flat roofs was used. Today, we have the old tiles and this new kind
of cement for the roofs. [passage indistinct]

91.  For example, how many cement blocks will we have in Havana? In comparison
to the 11 million blocks that were produced when this plan was started, by the
end of next year we will produce 55 million. This will have grown by 5 times.
By next year, we will produce approximately 34 million. This year, we produced
approximately 23 million. Production has grown here in Havana from 23 million
blocks to 34 million next year. What was the brick production for this year?
[Words indistinct] this plant now? The (?following) year it will be 57, it will
surpass the brick production of 33 [words indistinct] to 57. Brick production
will grow by 21 million units next year.

92.  This will not be the only factory here. Right in front we will have
Managua II, another factory for the production of 20 million bricks. Managua
will produce [words indistinct]. How was this factory built?

93.  We used Italian technology for the main equipment. The furnace is Cuban,
which made it very economical. The Managua II will have Yugoslav technology. It
will have some Italian equipment, and the furnace will also be Cuban. I have
not told you yet that we are also building in San Cristobal a tile factory for
supplying the needs of the capital. This is not counting another one which we
are building in Marianao. [addressing someone in crowd] How many will the one
in Mariano produce? It will produce 15 million. We are building the furnaces.
In some cases we have bought them. But in order to save convertible currency,
we are making the furnaces. [words indistinct] will be a result of the
experience of three countries. The experience we are gaining allows us to look
for formulas, economize our resources, and solve problems.

94.  We will have a production of 30 million bricks next year, well, we cannot
expect a new factory to actually produce the 30 million. Therefore, the
increased production of bricks in the capital, with the repair of the old [word
indistinct], will surpass 90 million when we built the other line. By 1991, we
will have available more than 90 million bricks. What was our capacity?
Forty-six million.  We are increasing our brick production a lot, but not as
much as [word indistict]. We have already finished tile factories, and we are
finishing other ones. We have several lines of mosaics. [passage indistinct] I
have not told you yet, for example, that Marianao [words indistinct] will have
three lines of blocks and three lines of mosaics. I have already told you that
three lines of blocks will be in Guanabacoa--which will complete the 16 new
lines of blocks. Each line can produce an estimated 3.2 million blocks. We will
have 16 new blocks in addition to other ones we had, prior to using this plan.
This will result in a production capacity of 55 million blocks. If we add the
capacity for the production of blocks with the capacity of brick production, it
would be enough to build the walls, and only the walls, of 50,000 housing
units.  Naturally, not all is for the walls of houses. If we need to build a
bakery, we also need to build its walls. If we need to build a factory, or
anything else, we also have to build its walls. The same holds true for a
polyclinic, hospital, child care center, school, specialty market. Any
construction needs the wall. However, not all constructions have [words
indistinct]. The repair, maintenance, and reconstruction of a home uses a lot
of materials. We have set the capital's plan for construction of homes at
20,000 per year. That is a minimum, it may be a little higher [words
indistinct]. But we must carefully calculate how much material we will need in
the reconstruction, remodeling, and repairing of the homes that we now have.
That is something that was extensively discussed in a recent meeting of the
party. It was discussed at the National Assembly of the People's Government. We
are going to start working seriously and strongly in reconstruction, in
reconstruction and rehabilitation. There are a lot of those housing units that
have sprung up. We have already determined the minimum number of
reconstructions we have to do. Now we have to study the number of units we can
aspire to rebuild or rehabilitate per year.  This is as important as the
construction of the new homes. These calculations must be made. We must also
keep in mind that we are not working just for the capital but also for the
province, and the capital and the province add up to 2.7 million residents.

95.  The construction of the new homes, as well as the repair of the current
homes for Havana Province, must be done from those materials. Therefore, the
walls for those 50,000 homes [words indistinct] must be divided and

96.  I am certain that the materials will not be enough. I was talking with
comrade party secretary of Arroyo Naranjo, and he said that they will not be
able to use all the bricks and tiles we will produce, but I told him I think we
will use them all. In Arroyo Naranjo, if I am given a certain amount of
material, I will do so much. It is not a small matter, right? To increase
production from 11 million blocks to 55 million, and still it would not be
enough. It seems truly inconceivable.

97.  To this we must add another factor. We have not counted the walls [passage
indistinct] more or less the same. The roof tiles will be enough for another
50,000 homes. [passage indistinct] We have also not taken into account the
prefabricated homes. We have to add the thousands of homes that can be built
with the prefabricated factories the capital has. Those homes do not need
cement blocks nor bricks, other than what it needs for the inside walls.

98.  Therefore, the capacity level for construction materials is very large. We
do not have the exact figures. We bought lines to produce more materials than
what we thought would be necessary. We did it just in case we ended up having
an excess and not a shortage of production. But now we must continue keeping
track [words indistinct]. Naturally, I am sure that if in Arroyo Naranjo they
play a cornet, they would double or triple the number of people who are willing
to build. I also did not mention other clients, those who may want to expand
their homes, and those who may be able to build on their own. Therefore, you
can imagine the clients that will need all those blocks and bricks for new
houses, industries, social projects, rehabilitation or reconstruction of homes,
independent constructions.

99.  I think the capital does not have as much land as other cities in the
country to build [word indistinct] houses.  That cannot be done (?only) in
other cities, otherwise we run the risk of building homes all the way to
Batabano.  [passage indistinct] We have to give priority to new homes. Many of
the homes are for laborers, workers who do not have the means to build their
own homes.  However, there are a lot of families who can expand a room, or add
another story. There are several families who can add more room, unlike what
Pupi [not further identified] has done. Pupi was building all along the road.
Pupi was building toward Havana, Managua, and then toward [word indistinct]. He
was building good small homes, very pretty homes. But I told him: Concentrate,
concentrate in one area. [crowd laughs] Concentrate like when you were a good
pitcher and you wanted to [word indistinct] to a certain corner. [crowd laughs]
[words indistinct] What we are doing now is more compact. Just imagine how far
the homes go. They don't stop at the aqueduct. They go all the way here, and
continue all the way up to San Antonio de las Vegas.  [crowd laughs] Now, our
constructions are more compact. We are building four and five story buildings.
That is the only way we can escape the problem here in the capital of the

100.  However, we will have a lot of materials, equipment. The first thing we
did when the minibrigades were used again was to build a crane factory which
has been very useful.  Therefore, like someone here said, we have very
promising prospects at a time when the Third World is going through very
difficult times. I have visited certain places and have seen constructions
paralyzed. [words indistinct] We hear about the closing down of schools,
hospitals, factories, [words indistinct] to resolve important problems
efficiently and quickly.

101.  During these 2 and  years we have been especially dedicated to finding a
solution to these problems. I am not talking about agriculture and other tasks,
but I am talking about these construction materials problems.  These
construction materials are good for everything.  They are used for economic as
well as for social projects, whether they are for agriculture or industry.

102.  We are also aware and have spoken about the various risks that threaten
us. I will add nothing about this subject because I have already spoken about
it. However, we are prepared. We are preparing ourselves for everything. If we
have peace, estimate what we can do. [Words indistinct] great economic
catastrophies resulting from certain problems that we are experiencing. Just
imagine what we can do, if we have already learned to do so much with less. The
example I gave you about the use of cement shows it. The example I gave you
about the use of wood shows it. The minibrigades show it, because here, just in
the capital we [word indistinct] build approximately 4,000 homes which can only
be built with the bricks this factory produces. The walls for 4,000 houses can
be built. They say they have 90 workers. That means that in this factory each
worker will produce the necessary bricks for the walls for 40, 45, or 50 houses
per year.  Each worker here must say: I am producing enough for 50 houses. The
same must be said by those who produce cement blocks and mosaic tiles.

103.  Mosaic tile production is really hard work. We have visited several
workshops, production lines and we have seen the women working. It is a hard
job. They have a mold, material has to be added to it, and it has to be
painted. They also have to frame it, put it in a press. Both the men and women
are the ones who have to push on the press. However, it is interesting to watch
how women also do it and they can still obtain the required standard.  They
have to press 90 pounds. [Words indistinct] they have to make a great effort.
The production of mosaic tiles cannot be automated, mechanized. Machines for it
do not exist. The production of mosaic tiles has been decreasing in the world.
It has been substituted by practical products. However, mosaic tile continues
being a good quality product for floors. Proof of this is that in the hotels
that are under construction in Varadero, the construction workers prefer mosaic
tile to regular tile.  Frankly, mosaic tile is prettier. It is also said that
mosaic tile keeps the temperature cooler. Chavez [not further identified] says
it is cooler for our climate. So, the mosaic tile is preferred where good
quality projects are being built. The planners prefer it. We have even seen the
production of higher quality mosaic, like the kind that was produced at other
times. It is the kind that used to be made with simple paints mixed in
different tones, and not with designs. Naturally, this kind of mosaic tile
lowers the productivity level; nevertheless, we have started producing higher
quality mosaic tiles.

104.  What we are now going to do in those factories is to make the work more
humane. [Passage indistinct] light material to reduce the 92 pounds to 60
pounds. Studies are being done to see with which one they can solve the problem
of the [words indistinct] to make all that work easier. There is a high number
of women involved in that job. I believe that soon we are going to make all
those innovations in all our mosaic tile lines so that the work of the
operators can be more humane, easier. That kind of work is not mechanized
anywhere in the world. It cannot be mechanized. It is not like producing
blocks. It is admirable to watch how all that is done--to watch the pulleys and
hoists work. The only thing the hoists do is to raise the blocks, because the
machine leaves them already made. The hoists put the blocks on a little [word
indistinct] wagon and takes them to an area where they dry for 24 hours. The
whole process for the blocks is mechanized, and almost all that is automated.
That cannot be done with the mosaic tiles.

105.  Yet, it would be much [words indistinct] but it produces a high quality
item. Thus, all those conditions have been created and I was telling you that
we are prepared for everything, for everything. We are prepared to take major
steps forward in the future. We are enthusiastically working to make this
happen [words indistinct] major feats too in other fields. We are prepared to
resist whatever might become necessary to resist. We are prepared to defend the
fatherland. We are prepared for the projects we are now undertaking. We are
prepared to defend the future we are building.

106.  Yesterday was also a day on which we toured and dedicated projects, on
which we presented banners to contingents. Today, we dedicated these factories. 
Tomorrow, we will dedicate polyclinics that are part of a program that is being
completed as was originally conceived. On the 31st, we will also dedicate
special education schools, which are also part of a program that is being
completed as originally conceived. Our people are working everywhere and many
of our countrymen are giving up Saturdays or Sundays [words indistinct] if the
need arises.

107.  We are not urging the people to make useless, unnecessary efforts. We
urge them to make every effort that might be necessary. It is not always
necessary that everyone be drilling wells. Some could be drilling wells while
others could be having the day off. We are now approaching the year end
celebrations. Tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands of workers and their
families go out; they go to restaurants, or elsewhere, but tens of thousands
will also be working in those places to wait on them. [Words indistinct] tens
of thousands will be working at the same time to provide these people with
transportation; tens of thousands will also be working in hospitals to provide
assistance to those who might need it at that time. Tens of thousands of people
are working in 24-hour industries, in the sugar mills [words indistinct] there
will be tens of thousands working at that time. There will be tens of thousands
working at the thermoelectric plant so that we may have electricity, and there
will be others who will be milking cows so that we can have milk the next
morning. Others will be (?working at the pasteurizing plant) and delivering the

108.  This is life. While some have the chance to have fun, to have a good
time, others will have to be working for them. This is how life should always
go. This is why not everyone can be off to have a good time by midnight.  Those
working will, however, also have a good time by serving others. This is
important and we can see it in the contingents, how happy they are when they
complete a project.

109.  Yesterday we dedicated a bus terminal there near the 100th Street and
Boyeros. They built this project saving a lot of materials. They also used some
metal items. Yet, they were able to build about 180 cubic meters of concrete
for each cubic meter of lumber. Besides, they used only 380 kg of cement per
cubic meter of concrete.  Look at all that can be done. They built a high
quality project. I see how happy they are when they see their project
completed. Those countrymen serving others will also be happy at that time. The
only thing is that they will not rest on the 31st, but they will surely rest on
the 1st.

110.  Today, our people are working with great spirit, with great dedication.
We saw this yesterday at the youth rally. We have seen this in recent days
during the funeral of our comrades fallen in internationalist missions; we have
seen it outside the embassy [corrects himself] the interests office of
imperialism; we have seen it everywhere.  Therefore, I would say that this is a
year-end of revolutionary reaffirmation, of work, and of optimism.

111.  We will continue to move forward in this way, fulfilling our programs,
giving a greater impulse to our country.  Since we have just mentioned
internationalism, it is proper to note that this extremely modern brick
factory--which will be even more modern when we make the loading process
automated--bears the name of an internationalist comrade who fell in the line
of duty: Major Jesus Raul Diaz Sosa. This is the name of the factory. I don't
know if you already [words indistinct].  [applause]

112.  Forgive me, comrades, because tonight is still a bit chilly--although we
should not complain about the cold weather because it helps our sugarcane
yield--and I have spoken a little long, but, since we spent the afternoon
touring these industrial projects, I wanted to explain to you, to the
journalists, and to the people--if this speech is broadcast over television,
the meaning of all these projects dedicated today.

113.  Socialism or death, fatherland or death. We shall win!  [applause]