[1] See, for example, Samuel P. Huntington, The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century (Norman, Oklahoma and London: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991); Larry Diamond, Juan J. Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, editors, Democracy in Developing Countries: Volume 4, Latin America (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1989); Guillermo O'Donnell, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead, Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Comparative Perspectives (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986); John Higley and Richard Gunther, editors, Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992); and Adam Przeworski, Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991). For a review essay, see Ben Ross Schneider, "Democratic Consolidations: Some Broad Comparisons and Sweeping Arguments," Latin American Research Review, Volume 30, Number 2 (1995): 215-234.

[2] For a review of civil-military relations in Latin America, see Linda Alexander Rodríguez, editor, Rank and Privilege: The Military and Society in Latin America, Jaguar books on Latin America, no. 8 (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1994); Gabriel Marcella, editor, Warriors in Peacetime: The Military and Democracy in Latin America - New Directions for U.S. Policy (Ilford, Essex, England: Frank Cass, 1994); Paul W. Zagorski, Democracy vs. National Security: Civil-Military Relations in Latin America (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner, 1992); Karen L. Remmer, Military Rule in Latin America (Winchester, Massachusetts: Unwin Hyman, 1989); Brian Loveman and Thomas M. Davies, Jr., editors, The Politics of Antipolitics: The Military in Latin America, Second Edition (Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1989); Louis W. Goodman, Johanna S. R. Mendelson, and Juan Rial, editors, The Military and Democracy: The Future of Civil-Military Relations in Latin America (Lexington, KY.: Lexington Books, 1990); Augusto Varas, editor, Democracy Under Siege: New Military Power in Latin America (New York: Greenwood, 1989); James M. Malloy and Mitchell A. Seligson, editors, Authoritarians and Democrats: Regime Transition in Latin America (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1987). For a review essay, see David Pion-Berlin, "The Armed Forces and Politics: Gains and Snares in Recent Scholarship," Latin American Research Review, Volume 30, Number 1 (1995): 147-162.

[3]Webster's New Twentieth Century Dictionary, Unabridged (New York: Simon and Schuster).

[4] See, for example, Jorge Zaverucha, Rumor de Sabres: Tutela Militar ou Controle Civil? (São Paulo: Editora Atica, 1994), especially page 10.

[5] Acuña and Smith, "A Política da `Economia Militar' no Cone Sul: Análise Comparativa da Democracia e da Produção de Armas na Argentina, no Brasil e no Chile," Contexto Internacional, Volume 16, Number 1 (Janeiro/Junho 1994): 7-52. Translated by Francisco de Castro Azevedo. Originally published in Lars Schoultz, William C. Smith and Augusto Varas, editors, Security, Democracy, and Development in the Western Hemisphere (New Brunswick: Transaction/North South Center).

[6] Dahl, Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1971), page 3.

[7] See Alfred Stepan's classic, The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971).

[8] For an overview of civil-military relations from 1974 through 1992, see Eliézer Rizzo de Oliveira, De Geisel a Collor: Forças Armadas, Transição e Democracia (Campinas and São Paulo: Papirus Editora, 1994).

[9] See Scott D. Tollefson and Frank D. McCann, "National Security," chapter 5 in Brazil: A Country Handbook (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service), forthcoming.

[10] Alfred Stepan, Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988).

[11] Zaverucha, "Civil-Military Relations in Spain, Argentina and Brazil," Journal of Latin American Studies, Volume 25, Part 2 (May 1993): page 299.

[12] Zaverucha, "Civil-Military Relations...," page 299.

[13] Hunter, "Politicians Against Soldiers: Contesting the Military in Post-Authoritarian Brazil," Comparative Politics, Volume 27, Number 4 (July 1995): 425-443; citation from page 427.

[14] Brasília, Palácio do Planalto, 30 August 1995.

[15] Ricardo Amaral, "FH assina projeto de lei sobre desaparecidos," O Estado de São Paulo, 12 August 1995, page A13.

[16] Eduardo Hollanda and Hélio Contreiras, "Desaparecidos entram em cena," Isto É, 6 September 1995, pages 24-27.

[17] Juan J. Linz warns against the tendency of new rulers to "waste energy in what might be called ressentiment politics against persons and institutions identified with the old order. This would consist in petty attacks on their dignity and their sentiments. Such measures are likely to be echoed at lower level, in administration and local government....Bitterness over symbolic changes and the emotional costs of ressentiment politics are not easily forgotten. In such policies lodge the roots of disloyal opposition and latent ambivalence toward the regime that may become manifest years later at the time of serious crisis. " Linz, Crisis, Breakdown, & Reequilibration, Volume 1 of The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes, edited by Linz and Alfred Stepan (Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), page 42.

[18]U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, 1993-1994 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1995): page 55.

[19] U.S. ACDA, WMEAT, 1993-1994, page 55.

[20] Paulo S. Wrobel, "Gasto Militar no Brasil: Atores Chaves e o Processo Orçamentário," Rio de Janeiro, paper authored for publication, April 1994.

[21] Within all of Latin America, only Guatemala, Barbados, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Panama ranked lower. U.S. ACDA, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, 1993-1994 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1995): pages 33-34, 55.

[22] Hunter, "Politicians Against Soldiers," page 437.

[23] See "As armas da força," Veja, 2 February 1994, pages 70-77.

[24] Paulo S. Wrobel, "Gasto Militar no Brasil...," page 13. Note, however, that ACDA's figure for military expenditures as a share of gross national product in 1993 is 1.1 percent. ACDA's figures confirm the decline, from a high of 1.7 percent in 1990. U.S. ACDA, World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, 1993-1994 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 1995): page 55.

[25] Wrobel, interview with author, Rio de Janeiro, 4 September 1995.

[26] It should be noted that Sardenberg's predecessor, Mário César Flores, was a retired admiral, a former minister of the navy, and a leader in Brazil's nuclear-powered submarine program. Nevertheless, he agreed to the quadripartite agreement. Flores was criticized by many military officers for his acquiescence on the nuclear accords and budgetary matters. Author's interview with Minister Mário César Flores, 19 January 1994, Palácio do Planalto, Brasília.

[27] Scott D. Tollefson, "Brazilian Arms Transfers, Ballistic Missiles, and Foreign Policy: The Search for Autonomy," Ph.D. dissertation, The Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, May 1991; Ian Anthony and Herbert Wulf, "The Trade in Major Conventional Weapons," in SIPRI Yearbook 1990: World Armaments and Disarmament (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): pages 219-253; estimate on page 247.

[28] For an account of the rise and fall of Brazil's armaments industry, see Roberto Lopes, Rede de Intrigas (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1994).

[29] Thomas Kamm, "War Levels Brazil's Defense Firms, Which Thrived on Iraq's Purchases," Wall Street Journal, 5 February 1991, page A14; Sam Dillon, "Brazil Arms Industry Crashes," Miami Herald, 29 January 1991; Valéria da Silva, "Brasil Perde Mercado Bélico," Jornal do Brasil, 21 January 1991; and Eustáquio de Freitas, "Recessão Atinge São José dos Campos," O Globo, 18 November 1990, page 57.

[30] See Domício Proença Júnior, editor, Uma Avaliação da Indústria Bélica Brasileira: Defesa, Indústria e Tecnologia (Rio de Janeiro: Grupo de Estudos Estratégicos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro): 1993. The book is the product of a symposium held in August 1993.

[31] See Eliana Simonetti's exposé, "Segredos de Estado," Veja, 31 May 1995, pages 112-115. See also "AMX Fighters Flown First Time," (in Portuguese), Rio de Janeiro Rede Globo Television, 2300 GMT, translated and reported in Foreign Broadcast Information Service LAT-93-195, p. 57.

[32] Jayme Brener, "Tucano abatido," Isto É, 28 June 1995, page 26.

[33] Hunter, "Politicians Against Soldiers: Contesting the Military in Post-Authoritarian Brazil," Comparative Politics, Volume 27, Number 4 (July 1995): 425-443.

[34] "Oxhorn, "Understanding Political Change After Authoritarian Rule: The Popular Sectors and Chile's New Democratic Regime," Journal of Latin American Studies, Volume 26, Part 3, October 1994, pages 737-759; citation is from pages 758 and 759.

[35] That submarine program received stinging criticism from Veja, a fact that highlights the independent and vibrant role played by the press. See Eliana Simonetti, "Uma piada sem graça," 21 December 1994, pages 118-119.

[36] Scott D. Tollefson, "U.S. Security Relations with Brazil: Implications for Civil-Military Relations in Brazil," paper presented at a conference sponsored by the Latin American Studies Association, Los Angeles, 24 September 1992, page 7.

[37] See Jayme Brener, in an interview with Foreign Minister Luiz Felipe Lampreia, "De calças compridas," Isto É, 6 September 1995: 98.

[38] See "Brazil: Under Pressure to Give Up Missiles," The Risk Report, Volume 1, No. 3 (April 1995): 1-9.

[39] For a provocative and compelling arguments concerning the technological and strategic choices available to late industrializers, see Gamaliel Perruci, Jr., "The North-South Security Dialogue in Brazil's Technology Policy," Armed Forces and Society, Volume 21, Number 3 (Spring 1995): 371-394.

[40] For a discussion of the tension of these roles, see Stepan, The Military in Politics: Changing Patterns in Brazil (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971), chapter 12.

[41] Wendy Ann Hunter, "Back to the Barracks? The Military in Post-Authoritarian Brazil," Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, abstract.